1868 - Wylde, J. A Geography and History of New Zealand - [Text] p 1-44

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  1868 - Wylde, J. A Geography and History of New Zealand - [Text] p 1-44
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&C., &c., &c.,

Whose zealous exertions have had so beneficial an effect on the Education of the Youth of the Colony, and will leave a most important and durable impress on the future History of New Zealand,


Is, with sincere respect,

Dedicated by


Christchurch, July,1868.

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General Description of New Zealand. . . . . 7

Discovery of New Zealand .. . . 8

The North Island . . . . . . . 10

The Middle Island. . . . . 13

The Southern Island . . . . . . . 17

Natural History.. . . . . 18

Colonization. . . . . . . . . 20

Political Constitution. . . . . 24

Description of the Provinces. . . . . . 27

Of the Natives and Native Disturbances.. . . . . 35

Table of Exports . . . . . . . 40

Table of Live Stock. . . . . 41

Census Table . . . . . . . 42

Table of Land under Cultivation. . . . . . . 45

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Q. --What are the names of the five great sections into which the world is divided?

A. --Europe, Asia, Africa, America, and Oceania.

Q. --How is Oceania subdivided?

A. --Into three parts, named Malaysia, Australasia, and Polynesia.

Q. --In which of these parts is New Zealand situated?

A. --In the central part, called Australasia.

Q. --Of what does New Zealand consist?

A. --Of three principal Islands, called the Northern, the Middle, and the Southern Islands, and of several smaller ones, all situated in the South Pacific Ocean, and lying between the 162nd degree of East Longitude and the 173rd degree of West Longitude, and between the 33rd and 53rd parallels of South Latitude. 1

Q. --What is the size of the three principal Islands?

A. --They are about 1,150 miles long, their mean breadth is about 140 miles, and they contain about 100,000 square miles. 2

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Q. --When was New Zealand discovered?

A. --It was first discovered by Tasman, a Dutch navigator, in 1642.

Q. --Was Tasman aware that it consisted of several Islands?

A. --No; he supposed it to form part of a large Continent.

Q. --Was it inhabited at that time?

A. --Yes, and the natives having killed some of Tasman's crew, he named the place where this occurred Murderer's Bay, since changed to Massacre Bay. 3

Q. --Did he name any other place?

A. --Yes; having sighted the North-West Cape, he named it Cape Maria Van Dieman, after the daughter of the Governor of Batavia.

Q. --What name did Tasman give the country?

A. --At first he called it Staten-land, but subsequently it was named after his native country, "New Zealand."

Q. --Did he take possession of the country?

A. --No; nor did he land on it.

Q. --Who next visited New Zealand?

A. --Captain Cook.

Q. --When?

A. --In 1769 and 1777. 4

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Q. --Did lie take possession of the Islands?

A. --He nominally took possession of them in the name of the King of England, and surveyed the Coasts.

Q. --Was any place named after Captain Cook?

A. --Yes. The Straits which separate the North and Middle Islands, being discovered and surveyed by him, were named "Cook's Straits," and the highest Mountain in New Zealand has lately been named after him.

Q. --Did he name any other places in New Zealand?

A. --Yes; most of the names by which the Capes and Bays are now known were given by him; he also named Queen Charlotte's Sound and Mount Egmont.

Q. --Had he any intercourse with the Natives?

A. --Yes; and he has left us a very interesting account of their manners and customs.

Q. --What did Captain Cook do to benefit the Natives?

A. --He sowed various kinds of seeds in different parts of the Islands, and made the Natives presents of Pigs, Poultry, and Goats.

Q. --Which of the seeds sown by him have been of the greatest value?

A. --The cabbage and turnip seeds, which have spread all over the islands, and also potatoes.

Q. --What is the name by which the Natives are known?

A. --They are called "Maoris."

Q. --What is the meaning of this name?

A. --The word Maori signifies anything which is native or indigenous. 5

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Q. --What is the native name of the North Island?

A. --Te Ika-a-maui.

Q. --What is the meaning of this name?

A. --The fish of Maui.

Q. --What is the meaning of "Maui?"

A. --"Maui" is the name of the greatest hero of the Maori mythology, and he is said to have fished up the North Island from the depths of the sea. 6

Q. --Has this island any other name?

A. --Tes, it was at one time called New Ulster; but this name is now seldom used. 7

Q. --What is the general character of the surface of the North Island?

A. --It is chiefly composed of low ranges of hills and table-lands, with a few high volcanic peaks rising above the limits of perpetual snow. 8

Q. --Which are the principal Harbours in the North Island?

A. --Auckland and Coromandel in the Hauraki Gulf; Manakau, Kaipara, and Hokianga on the West Coast; and Wellington in Cook's Straits. 9

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Q. --Are there any Lakes?

A. --Yes, several; the largest being Taupo, Tarawera, and Rotorua.

Q. --What is the size of Lake Taupo?

A. --It is twenty miles in diameter, and contains about 200 square miles of surface.

Q. --What is there peculiar in the character of this lake?

A. --It is 1250 feet above the sea, is surrounded by extinct volcanos, and there are many hot-springs on its shores.

Q. --What is remarkable about the neighbourhood of Tarawera?

A. --There are continual shocks of earthquakes; a month never passes without one being felt. 10

Q. --What are the principal Rivers?

A. --The Waikato, the Wanganui, the Manawatu, the Thames, and the Wairoa.

Q. --Which is the largest of these rivers?

A. --The Waikato.

Q. --Describe it.

A. --It rises on the Tongariro and Raupahu mountains, flows northward, and forms Lake Taupo; from thence it continues its course northwards for about 150 miles, and then, turning abruptly to the west, flows into the sea halfway between the harbours of Manakau and Whaingoroa.

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Q. --Is there anything unusual in the course followed by this river?

A. --Yes; instead of flowing along a valley, for a great part of its course it runs across a series of valleys in a deep cleft, apparently formed by the action of an earthquake.

Q. --Describe the river Wanganui.

A. --It rises near the source of the Waikato, on Mount Raupahu, and flows southwards a distance of 130 miles to Cook's Straits.

Q. --What is the course of the Thames?

A. --It rises in the high land, near Lake Roturua, and flows northward into the Hauraki Gulf.

Q. ---Describe the Manawatu and the Wairoa.

A. --The Manawatu rises in the Puketoi mountains, and flows into Cook's Straits; and the Wairoa rises in the northern part of the island, and flows into Kaipara harbour.

Q. --What are the principal Mountains?

A. --Mount Raupahu, 9200 feet high; Mount Tongariro, 6500 feet, in the middle of the island; Mount Egmont, 8300 feet, at the west entrance of Cook's Straits; and the Puketoi and the Coromandel ranges, on the east coast.

Q. --Are there any active Volcanos?

A. --Yes. Mount Tongariro continually throws out columns of smoke from two craters, and occasionally flame; and there is also an active volcano, 900 feet high, on White Island, in the Bay of Plenty, about 160 miles from Tongoriro.

Q. --Are there any other volcanic phenomena?

A. --The most remarkable and most extensive hot-spring

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territory in the world extends from Tongariro to White Island. 11

Q. --What is the character of this territory?

A. --It is full of hot springs, mud fountains, and geysers, and the whole ground seethes, bubbles, and steams from a thousand crevices and fissures.

Q. --Is any use made of these springs?

A. --The natives resort to them for relief from various complaints and diseases, and those living in the neighbourhood use them for cooking their food. One spring near Taupo petrifies anything placed in it.

Q. --Is the North Island subject to earthquakes?

A. --Slight shocks are frequently felt, and more violent ones occur at intervals of about six years.

Q. --When did the most severe earthquakes on record occur?

A. --In 1848 and 1855.

Q. --What effects did they produce?

A. --Brick buildings were thrown down; the ground opened in fissures, and gas, water, and mud were thrown up; a large number of fish in Cook's Straits were killed; and the harbour and town of Wellington were raised about four-and-a-half feet. 12


Q. --Is there any native name for the Middle Island?

A. --A part of it is called by the Maoris, "Te Wahi Punamu."

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Q. --What is the meaning of this name?

A. --"The Land of Greenstone."

Q. --Why is it so called?

A. --Because the greenstone or jade of which the natives make their weapons, tools, and ornaments, is procured by them from the mountains on the west coast of this island.

Q. --What other name has been given to this island?

A. --The English at first called it New Munster.

Q. --How is this Island separated from the North Island?

A. --It is separated from the North Island by Cook's Strait, which is fifteen miles wide at the narrowest part, and ninety miles at the widest part.

Q. --What is the character of its surface?

A. --The eastern and southern sides and end of the Island consist principally of open grassed plains, divided occasionally by ranges of hills running down to the sea; and the western side is composed of a range of mountains 500 miles long, their summits upwards of 10,000 feet high, covered with perpetual snow, and their lower slopes clothed with dense forests.

Q. --What name has been given to this range of mountains?

A. --The Southern Alps. 13

Q. --Can you give a description of the scenery in the mountainous district?

A. --It embraces splendid glacier streams, lovely mountain lakes, magnificent cataracts, mountain passes, and gloomy ravines.

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A. --What is the nature of the country along the west coast?

A. --In some parts the mountains approach close to the sea, and terminate in vertical precipices 3000 to 4000 feet in height; in others a mere strip of fertile ground intervenes between the mountains and the coast, generally covered with thick forests.

Q. --What are the principal harbours on the Coast of the Middle Island?

A. --Port Underwood, Queen Charlotte Sound, Pelorus Sound, and Nelson in Cook's Strait; Lyttelton, Akaroa, and Port Chalmers on the East Coast; the Bluff in Foveaux Strait; and Dusky Bay and Milford Haven on the West Coast.

Q. --What are the chief lakes in the Middle Island?

A. --Lake Ellesmere, near Banks Peninsula; Lakes Wakatipu, Wanaka, Hawea, Tekapo, Coleridge, and Sumner on the eastern side of the Southern Alps, and Lakes Brunner and Arthur on the Western side.

Q. --What is the peculiar character of Lake Ellesmere?

A. --It is separated from the sea by a narrow strip of shingle beach, fifteen miles long, and when the lake is full the water breaks through the beach and forms a channel through which the lake is emptied. The sea then throws up shingle and closes the outlet until the lake is again filled.

Q. --How often does this occur?

A. --Every third or fourth year.

Q. --What are the principal rivers in the Middle Island?

A. --On the north, the Wairau, Awatera, and Motueka, which flow into Cooks Strait; on the east, the Clarence

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and Waiau rising near Mount Franklin, the Hurunui, flowing from Lake Sumner, the Waimakariri from the Southern Alps, the Heathcote and Avon rising on the plains near Banks Peninsula, the Halswell and Selwyn flowing into Lake Ellesmere, the Rakaia, Ashburton, Rangitata, and Waitaki all rising in the Southern Alps. The Taieri, south of Port Chalmers, the Clutha, or Molyneux, flowing from Lakes Wakatipu and Wanaka; on the south the Mataura, New River and Jacob River flowing into Foveaux Strait; and on the west the Awarua, the Haast, the Hokitika, the Teremakau, the Grey, and the Buller.

Q. --Which are the highest mountains in the Middle Island?

A. --Mount Cook, 13,200 feet, Mount Tasman, Mount Tyndall, and many others upwards of 10,000 feet; and the Kaikoras 9,000 feet high.

Q. --Are there any signs that volcanic action is still going on in the Middle Island?

A. --The only known signs are some small hot springs on the Hanmer plains. 14

Q. --Are earthquakes prevalent?

A. --When a severe earthquake occurs in the North Island, a slight shock is generally felt throughout the Middle Island, but not sufficient to do any harm.

Q. --What is the date of the last account we have of a severe earthquake in the Middle Island?

A. --The year 1826.

Q. --What effect is it known to have produced?

A. --Gaol harbour on the West Coast, in which the whalers used to land in their boats, was raised and left dry.

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Q. --What name was at first given to the Southern Island?

A. --New Leinster.

Q. --What is it now generally called?

A. --Stewart's Island, after the captain of a trading vessel, who first discovered that it was separated from the Middle Island.

Q. --What name did he give to the Strait which separates the two Islands?

A. --Foveaux Strait.

Q. --What is the width of this Strait?

A. --About fifteen miles.

Q. --Are there any harbours in Stewart's Island?

A. --Yes; the east side abounds in good harbours, the principal ones being Port Pegasus and Port William. 15

Q. --Give a general description of the Island.

A. --It contains about 1400 square miles of surface, and is very picturesque, containing wood, hills, lakes, bays, and rocky headlands.

Q. --What is the highest mountain?

A. --The Dome, which rises to 3,200 feet.

Q. --What is the chief River?

A. --The Paterson, forming at its mouth an extensive Harbour, called Port Somes.

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Q. --Are any animals indigenous to New Zealand?

A. --Yes; there are two species which are known to be indigenous, and two others which are doubtful.

Q. --What are the known species?

A. --Rats and Bats.

Q. --What are the doubtful species?

A. --A species of Dog, which may have been introduced by some of the early Navigators, and an animal supposed to resemble an Otter, of which traces have been found in the Middle Island.

Q. --Is the Native Rat still existing?

A. --No; it has been exterminated by the European species.

Q. --What are the principal Birds?

A. --Several kinds of Ducks, Bitterns, Cranes, Pigeons, Parrots, Woodhens, Swamphens, and Hawks.

Q. --Is there not a family of Birds peculiar to New Zealand?

A. --Yes; the Apterix or Ki-wi is a singular wingless bird, several varieties of which are found in both the North and Middle Islands.

Q. --What is known of a bird called by the Maoris the Moa?

A. --This bird is now extinct, but remains of it are frequently found. It was a gigantic bird, attaining a height of ten feet. It bore some resemblance to the Ostrich and Emu, but was much larger and stronger.

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Q. --Are there any Fish found in the Lakes and Rivers?

A. --There are several small kinds found, hut the only fish of any value are Eels and Whitebait.

Q. --Are any fish found in the surrounding sea.

A. --Yes; a very large number and variety are caught on the Coasts, and at the mouths of the Rivers?

Q. --Are there any Forests in New Zealand?

A. --Yes; the North Island is thickly timbered, and also the western side of the Middle Island, and nearly the whole of Stewart's Island.

Q. --Which is the finest kind of tree found in these forests?

A. --The Kauri Pine, which is called the Queen of the Forest. It is the only one of the native pines which bears a cone. It sometimes attains a diameter of 17 feet and a height of 180 feet.

Q. --Does this tree produce anything but timber?

A. --It produces a valuable gum, insoluble in water, which is used for varnish.

Q. --How is it collected?

A. --It is found in lumps in the ground where Kauri forests have been burnt, and resembles amber in appearance.

Q. --Does it not form a valuable article of export?

A. --Yes. In the ten years ending 1865 Kauri Gum of the value of £260,000 was exported.

Q. --What is the most useful indigenous plant?

A. --The Phormium Tenax, or New Zealand Flax.

Q. --What use do the Natives make of this plant?

A. --They use the leaf for making ropes, baskets, plates,

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sails, mats, and cloaks, and also for writing on. They drink the honey juice obtained from the flower, and the dried flower-stalk is used for carrying fire from place to place, and also for making rafts for crossing the rivers.

Q. --Is this flax likely to become an important article of export?

A. --Yes; a patent has lately been obtained by Messrs. Purchas and Ninnis for a method of dressing the leaves, and a large quantity is now prepared for making ropes, &c.


Q. --Who were the first settlers in New Zealand?

A. --Some Whalers from Australia, who established Fishing Stations in various parts of the Island as early as 1800.

Q. --Who were the next settlers?

A. --Some Missionaries and their families, who were sent out by the Church Mission Society in 1814.

Q. --When and where was the Gospel first preached to the Maories?

A. --On Christmas Day,1814, at Rangihu, in the Bay of Islands.

Q. --What was the first step taken towards making New Zealand a British colony?

A. --In 1831 thirteen of the Maori chiefs petitioned the King of England to become their friend and guardian of the islands, in consequence of which Mr. Busby, a settler in New South Wales, was appointed "British Resident."

Q. --What was the effect of this?

A. --Very little; for though Mr. Busby arrived in 1833,

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and nominally represented the British Government, he had no legal power, and no means of enforcing his authority. 16

Q. --What term of derision was applied to him by the Maoris?

A. --They called him "A man-of-war without guns."

Q. --Who was the next representative of the British Government in New Zealand?

A. --Captain Hobson, who arrived in 1840, having been appointed Lieutenant-Governor.

Q. --What important steps did he take on behalf of the Crown?

A. --He entered into a treaty, by which the natives ceded to the Queen the Sovereignty of the Islands, and gave her the sole right of purchasing land of them. 17

Q. --What did the Queen by this treaty undertake on her part?

A. --She guaranteed to the natives undisturbed possession of their lands and other property, and extended to them all the rights and privileges of British subjects.

Q. --By whom and when was this important treaty signed?

A. --It was signed by Lieutenant-Governor Hobson, on behalf of the Queen, and by 512 Maori chiefs, on the 6th February,1840.

Q. --What is this treaty called?

A. --It is called the treaty of Waitangi, from the name of the place where it was signed.

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Q.,--Where was the first regular English settlement formed?

A. --At Wellington, in Cook's Strait, in 1839.

Q. --By whom was this settlement formed?

A. --By a company formed in England, called the New Zealand Land Company.

Q. --Which was the next settlement formed?

A. --In 1840 Auckland was settled, and became the seat of Government, and in the same year New Plymouth was established by a branch of the New Zealand Company.

Q.--Did this Company establish any other settlement?

A. --Yes, Nelson; in the year 1842.

Q. --When were the Otago and Canterbury settlements founded?

A. --Otago was founded in 1847, by a body of Scotch colonists, in connection with the Free Presbyterian Church; and Canterbury was founded in 1850, as a Church of England settlement, by a company formed in London, called the Canterbury Association.

Q. --Has any attempt been made by any other nation to colonize New Zealand?

A. --In 1840 an expedition was sent out by a company from France, called the Nanto-Bordelaise Company, to form a settlement at Akaroa, but the British flag having been raised there by Captain Stanly before the arrival of the French, they formed a settlement as British subjects. 18

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Q. --Has New Zealand any dependencies?

A. --Yes; the Chatham Islands and the Auckland Islands. 19

Q. --Describe the Chatham Islands.

A. --They are situated 300 miles to the east of Cook's Strait. The largest, named Chatham Island, is thirty-six miles long, and contains 600,000 acres; the others, named the Two Sisters, Pyramid, and Cornwallis, are much smaller.

Q. --What are the natural features of Chatham Island?

A. --One-sixth of the island is occupied by a salt-water lake, called Whanga, having an opening to the sea on the east coast; the rest of the island consists of gentle hills and slopes, clothed with small trees, flax, and fern.

Q. --Are there any aboriginal inhabitants?

A. --Yes; the natives are called "Paraiwhara." They were reduced to slavery in 1838, by a large body of Maoris, who emigrated from Cook's Straits, seized the island, and subjugated the natives.

Q. --Describe the Auckland Islands.

A. --They consist of one island, thirty miles long and fifteen miles wide, and several smaller islets, situated 180 miles south of Stewart's Island.

Q. --Has any settlement been formed on them?

A. --In 1848, a company, called "the Southern Whale Fishing Company," established a settlement there; but it has since been abandoned. 20

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Q. --When did New Zealand first become a dependency of the British Crown?

A. --When the Treaty of Waitangi was signed, on the 6th February, 1840.

Q. --What form of Government was at first adopted?

A. --At first, New Zealand was placed under the Government of the colony of New South Wales, Captain Hobson being appointed Lieutenant-Governor; but on the 16th November, 1840, the Queen signed a charter, forming New Zealand into a separate colony.

Q. --What was the form of Government provided by this charter?

A. --It provided that there should be a Governor, representing the Queen; a Legislative Council of not less than six persons, nominated by the Crown, with power to make laws; and an Executive Council of three persons, to advise and assist the Governor.

Q. --Who was the first Governor appointed?

A. --Captain Hobson, who had been acting as Lieutenant-Governor.

Q. --How long did this form of Government remain in force?

A. --For thirteen years.

Q. --What change was then made?

A. --An Act was passed by the British Parliament, on the 30th June, 1852, "to grant a Representative Constitution to New Zealand." 21

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Q. --When did this come into force?

A. -- On the 18th January,1853, it having been on that day proclaimed by the Governor, Sir George Grey.

Q. --Is this Act still in force (in 1868)?

A. --Yes.

Q. --What advantages does it confer on the colonists?

A. --It gives them the right of self-government by means of Representative Institutions.

Q. --What is the form of Government provided by it?

A. --It provides for the establishment of six Provinces, each Province to have a Superintendent and Provincial Council, to be elected by the people; also, for the establishment of a General Assembly.

Q. --What does the General Assembly consist of?

A. --Of the Governor; a Legislative Council, appointed by the Governor, and holding office during life; and a House of Representatives, elected by the people.

Q. --What are the powers of the Superintendents and Provincial Councils?

A. --They may make laws (with certain exceptions reserved for the General Assembly), "for the peace, order, and good government of their respective Provinces," provided that the same be not repugnant to the laws of England.

Q. --What are the powers of the General Assembly?

A. --The making of laws "for the peace, order, and good government of New Zealand, provided no such laws shall be repugnant to the laws of England." It may also constitute new Provinces.

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Q. --Are any other powers conferred on the General Assembly?

A. --It may make regulations for the sale of lands which have been purchased from the natives by the Crown, with the exception of all lands situated within the Canterbury Settlement.

Q. --What are the six Provinces which were established by the Constitution Act?

A. --Auckland, Nelson, New Plymouth (since changed to Taranaki), 22 Canterbury, Otago, Wellington,

Q. --Have any other Provinces been since established?

A. --Yes.

Q. --How many?

A. --Three.

Q. --What are their names, and where are they situated?

A. --Hawke's Bay, separated from Wellington in 1858; Marlborough, separated from Nelson in 1859; and Southland, separated from Otago in 1861.

Q. --Have any other Provinces been divided?

A. --Yes. In 1867 the western portion of Canterbury was formed into a County, under the name of Westland?

Q. --Is Stewart's Island included in the Provinces?

A. --No; it remains without any Local Government. 23

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Q. --Give a short description of the different Provinces.

A. --AUCKLAND, which is the most northern of the Provinces, is bounded on the north, east, and west, by the sea, and includes a number of adjacent islands; on the south it is bounded by the River Mokau and the thirty-ninth parallel of South Latitude. Its length, from Cape Maria, Van Dieman, to the southern boundary, is about 400 miles, and its greatest breadth 200 miles. It possesses several very fine Harbours, of which the Bay of Islands, the Waitemata River, and Tauranga, on the east, and Kaipara and Manukau on the west, are the principal. The Waitemata and Manukau Harbours nearly intersect the Province, approaching in one place to within one mile of each other, and on the Isthmus thus formed is built the town of Auckland. This town, which is the capital of the Province, was founded by Governor Hobson in 1840, and was the seat of the Colonial Government until, in 1865, it was removed to Wellington. The other principal Towns are Mongonui, situated near a remarkable mountain on the West Coast, 2,000 feet high, called Mongonui Bluff; Matakohe, in Kaipara Harbour; Onehunga, Otahuhu, and Panmure, all near Auckland; Havelock and Cameron, on the Waikato River; Alexandria, on the Waipa River; and Tauranga and Opitiki, in the Bay of Plenty. Lakes Taupo, Rotorua, Rotoiti, and Tarawera, and the Hot Spring district are situated in this province. In anticipation of a visit from the Duke of Endinburgh, the Natives of the Arawa tribe have lately (Anno 1868) formed a fine road for sixty miles through this remarkable district.

The principal Rivers are the Thames and the Waikato.

This is the only Province in New Zealand in which the Kauri Pine grows.

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The principal Exports are Kauri timber and Gum, Wool and Gold.

Gold was discovered near Coromandel Harbour in 1852, but only in small quantities, the whole amount exported up to 1865 being of the value of £51,000; but a very rich field has just been discovered in the valley of the Thames. The gold, in this instance, is found in quartz reefs, and therefore requires machinery to work it; but it promises to become one of the most profitable Goldfields ever discovered. Coal, of the description known as Brown Coal, is found in several parts of the Province, especially in the Drury and Waikato districts.

TARANAKI, formerly called New Plymouth, is bounded on the North by the River Mokau, on the west and south by the sea, and on the east by a line connecting the source of the River Mokau with the mouth of the River Patea, the northern part of this line being formed by the River Wanganui. Its length is about 100 miles, and its breadth about 6O miles. It was founded in 1841, by a branch of the New Zealand Company.

There are no Harbours on the Coast, and the only Rivers of any size are those forming the northern and southern boundaries, viz., the Mokau and the Patea. The principal feature of the Province is Mount Egmont, an extinct Volcano, which rises in the form of a regular isolated cone to a height of 8,300 feet above the sea.

This Province, which contains some of the finest land in New Zealand, and was at one time likely to become the seat of a flourishing settlement, has been ruined by Native disturbances, the settlers having been obliged to desert their farms and take up arms in self defence. There are no exports, but an inexhaustible amount of iron sand exists on the coast, which will probably in time become of great value.

WELLINGTON, the most southern of the Provinces of the

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North Island, is bounded on the north by the Province of Auckland, on the east by the Province of Hawke's Bay and the sea, on the north-west by the Province of Taranaki, and on the south and south-west by Cook's Strait. It is about 200 miles long from north to south, and about 80 miles from east to west.

The Capital Town, named Wellington, situated on a very fine harbour, originally called Port Nicholson, was founded by the New Zealand Company in 1840, and has been the seat of the Colonial Government since the commencement of 1865. The other principal Towns are Wanganui, Turakina, and Rangitikei, situated on Cook's Strait; and Masterton, Carterton, and Greytown, situated in the interior of the southern part of the Province.

The Rivers Wanganui and Manawatu are navigable for some distance by small vessels. The other principal Rivers are the Rangitiki, the Hut, the Wairarapa and the Wharema.

The principal Mountains are the Piketoi and Ruahine Ranges. The country is generally covered with Forest, but there are some fine plains along the Wairarapa and the Hut, and on the Coast between the Manawatu and the Wanganui. A fine bridge is now being built across the River Wanganui, which will facilitate intercourse with the western side of the Province and with Taranaki. The principal Exports are Wool and Hides.

HAWKES BAY, formerly a part of Wellington, but separated from that Province in 1858, is bounded on the north by Auckland, on the east by the sea, on the west by the Ruahine range of Mountains, and on the south by the Waimata River. It is about 100 miles long, and 40 miles wide. The Capital Town is called Napier, and is situated on the harbour of that name; the only other Town is Clive, situated a few miles to the south of Napier.

This is a very fertile Province, embracing many fine

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Plains, which are used for pastoral purposes. A large part of these Plains still belong to the Natives of the Ngatikahungunu tribe, who are now in the receipt of £26,000 per annum from Settlers as rents for their runs. In consequence of this, the Natives of this Province have adopted European customs to a greater extent than elsewhere, living in comfortable houses, driving their carriages, and having their Club in Napier. 24

Nelson, which forms the north-west part of the Middle Island, is bounded on the north and west by the sea, on the east by the Province of Marlborough and the sea, and on the south by the River Hurunui, Lakes Sumner and Brunner, and the River Grey, and is about 160 miles long, and 110 miles wide. The Capital Town, named Nelson, was founded, in 1842, by the New Zealand Company. It is situated on a harbour in Blind Bay; this harbour is formed by a most singular "boulder bank," which extends eight miles along the Coast, forming a natural dam, behind which runs an arm of the sea, in which vessels can lie with perfect safety. The other principal Towns are Motueka, in Blind Bay; Collingwood, in Massacre Bay; Westport, at the mouth of the Buller; Cobden, at the mouth of the Grey; and Richmond, in the interior.

A great portion of the Province is mountainous, and densely wooded, but there are some very fine Plains in the Waimea and Waiiti Valleys. Nelson is chiefly celebrated for its minerals, of which it possesses a great variety. Copper and Chromate of Iron have been procured from the Dun Mountain in considerable quantities.

Coal of the best quality is found in Massacre Bay, and on the Grey and the Buller Rivers; and Gold is found in

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the Motueka and Massacre Bay Districts, and on the West Coast.

The export of Gold from Nelson up to December,1865 amounted to £562,000.

MARLBOROUGH, which formerly formed part of Nelson, was separated from that Province in 1859. It is bounded on the north by Cook's Strait, on the east by the sea, and on the west and south by the Province of Nelson. It is about 120 miles long, and 50 wide. The northern end of the Province abounds in splendid Harbours, and it is well watered with fine Rivers, of which the chief are the Clarence, the Awatera, and the Wairau.

The Kaikora Mountains are situated in this Province.

Blenheim, the Capital Town, is situated on the mouth of the Wairau River; the other chief Towns are Picton, on Queen Charlotte's Sound, Havelock, and Renwick. The Wairau Plains form one of the finest pastoral districts in the Colony. Gold was discovered in 1864 on the banks of the Wakamarina, a small river running into Pelorus Sound, and for some time attracted a large number of diggers. The export up to the end of 1865 amounted to £127,000.

CANTERBURY, the central Province of the Middle Island, is bounded on the north by the River Hurunui, on the east by the sea, on the west by the Watershed of the Southern Alps, and on the south by the River Waitaki. It is about 170 miles long, and 80 miles wide, and was founded in 1850, by the Canterbury Association. The most remarkable features of this Province are the extensive Plains and the range of Southern Alps.

The Plains extend throughout the length of the Province, from the sea to the slopes of a chain of mountains running parallel with the main range, and being unencumbered with forests, and well watered, are peculiarly adapted for

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pastoral and agricultural purposes. They are intersected by numerous rivers, which generally run in straight courses from the mountains to the sea, and at nearly equal distances apart. The principal of these rivers are the Waipara, Ashley, Waimakariri, Selwyn, Rakaia, Ashburton, Rangitata, Opihi, Pareora, and Waihao.

The Coast line is broken by the remarkable system of volcanic hills forming Banks Peninsula, and in which the harbours of Lyttelton and Akaroa are situated.

The Southern Alps extend throughout the length of the Province, and form a chain of towering mountains (culminating in Mount Cook, 13,200 feet above the sea), which, as to the height of their summits, and as to the size and extent of their snow-fields and glaciers, rival the Pennine and Rhaetian Alps. 25 The road which has been formed across these mountains, which connects Canterbury with Westland, is one of the finest works of the kind in the world. It crosses the first range of mountains at Porter's Pass, at an altitude of 3234 feet; and the main range is crossed at Arthur's Pass, at an altitude of 3234 feet. It was opened for coach traffic on the 20th March, 1866. 26

The Capital Town of the Province is Christchurch, situated on the Plains, eight miles from the Port Town, Lyttelton. Christchurch is connected with the Port by a Railway, which passes through the intervening hills by a Tunnel, a mile and three quarters in length. The Railway is continued as far as the River Selwyn, a total distance of thirty miles.

The other principal Towns of the Province are--Kaiapoi, Leithfield, and Rangiora, to the North; and Timaru, Arowhenua, Geraldine, and Waimate, to the South.

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There is an excellent Roadstead at Timaru, and all the Trade of the Southern part of the Province passes through that town. A large portion of the Trade of the North part of the Province is conducted at Kaiapoi, which is accessible by the River Waimakariri to vessels of 150 tons burthen.

The chief Exports are Wool and Grain. There are numerous beds of brown Coal in the Province, and frequent indications of Copper and other minerals.

The County of Westland was separated from Canterbury at the commencement of the present year (1868). It is bounded on the north by the river Grey, on the east by the watershed of the Southern Alps, on the west by the sea, and on the south by the River Awarua. 27 This County consists entirely of mountains, and a narrow strip of densely wooded land along the coast. The whole population is engaged either in Gold-digging or in supplying the wants of the diggers. The value of the present yield of Gold amounts to about £1,500,000 per annum.

A valuable bed of Coal exists on the River Grey, and a company has lately been formed for working it. The Coal is of the best quality, and is found in seams of extraordinary thickness. A Railway is about to be made, to convey it to the place of shipment at Greymouth, from which it is distant about eight miles.

The chief Town of the County is Hokitika; the others are Greymouth, Kanieri, Ross, Goldsborough, and Okarita.

OTAGO is situated to the south of Canterbury, and is bounded on the north by the rivers Waitaki and Awarua on the east and west by the sea, and on the south by the sea and the Province of Southland. It is about 200 miles long, and 150 miles wide. The Capital Town is Dunedin, and was founded in 1848 by a Company from Scotland. It

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is situated near the head of the harbour of that name. The Port Town is called Port Chalmers, and is situated on the same harbour. The other principal Towns are Oamaru, situated on a roadstead, and receiving and despatching all the Imports and Exports of the northern part of the Province; Moeraki, Waikouaiti, and Molyneux, on the coast; Queenstown, on Lake Wakatipu; Gladstone, on Lake Hawea; and Clyde, Alexandra, Laurence, Havelock, and others, on the various Goldfields. The Province is chiefly noted for its rich and extensive Goldfields. The first discovery of Gold was made by Mr. Gabriel Read, in June, 1861, at a place since named Gabriel's Gully, situated eighty miles to the west of Dunedin; and since that time, it has been discovered and worked over nearly three-fourths of the Province. The value of Gold exported up to December,1865, amounted to nearly seven and a-half millions sterling. The principal Goldfields are the Taieri, Tuapeka, Mount Ida, Dunstan, and Wakatipu. Otago possesses also several fine Agricultural and Pastoral districts, and numerous indications of Mineral wealth. It abounds in seams of Coal of various qualities.

The principal Rivers are the Shag, Waikouaiti, Taieri, Tokomairiro, and Clutha.

SOUTHLAND, which formerly formed part of Otago, is entirely surrounded by that Province, except to the south, where it is bounded by Foveaux Strait. It was separated from Otago in 1861, and is divided from that Province on the east by the river Mataura, and on the west by the river Waiau. It is about eighty miles long, and sixty miles wide.

Although the smallest of all the Provinces, Southland has the advantage of possessing a very large extent of the finest Agricultural and Pastoral Land within immediate reach of a seaport. The Capital Town, Invercargill, is situated on the New River, and not far from the Bluff Harbour. The New River is one of the finest in the

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Colony, being navigable for upwards of twenty miles. The other towns are--Campbelltown, on the Bluff Harbour; Riverton, Wallace, Winton, and Dacre.


Q. --In what has the colonization of New Zealand differed from that of other countries?

A. --In the great regard paid to the aborigines.

Q. --In what way has this been shewn?

A. --First, by treating them as the legal owners of the soil, no land having been taken from them except by purchase. Second, by extending to them all the rights and privileges of British subjects. And third, by many laws being made expressly for their protection and benefit.

Q. --Have the natives always maintained friendly relations with the colonists?

A. --No; there have been many disturbances, some of them ending in wars.

Q. --What was the first serious disturbance?

A. --The natives having driven off some agents of the New Zealand Company who were surveying land in the Wairau district, and having burnt their huts, a warrant was issued for the arrest of the chiefs Rauparaha and Ranghiaiata. In endeavouring to execute this warrant, a conflict took place, and Captain Arthur Wakefield and twenty-six other colonists were killed. 28

Q. --What steps were taken by Governor Fitzroy in consequence of this?

A. --He met the two chiefs at their pah, and after hearing their explanations, he decided that, as the colonists

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had brought on and begun the fight, he would not avenge their deaths.

Q. --What remark did Rauparaha make on hearing this decision?

A. --He said, "the Governor is soft; he is a pumpkin."

Q. --When did the next disturbance occur?

A. --In 1845, when a chief, named Hone Heke, cut down a flagstaff which had been erected to signal ships at Hororareka, burnt the settlers' houses, and drove the inhabitants away to Auckland. 29

Q. --What measures were taken by the Governor in consequence?

A. --He offered a reward of £100 for Hone Heke's head, on which Heke offered a reward of £1000 for the Governor's head.

Q. --What was the result of these disturbances?

A. --Governor Fitzroy was recalled, and Captain Grey, now Sir George Grey, was appointed in his place.

Q. --Did Governor Grey quell the disturbances?

A. --Yes; he reduced Hone Heke to submission; seized Rauparaha, and imprisoned him for two years; and dispersed his adherents. 30

Q. --Where there any further disturbances at this time?

A. --Trifling wars occurred in 1846, originating in a white woman and her children being murdered by natives at Wanganui; but the natives soon retired, and no further disturbance took place for ten years.

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Q. --What was the origin of the next war?

A. --Some of the tribes in the North Island, being averse to selling land to the Crown, formed themselves into an Anti-land-selling League, and, not content with refusing to sell land themselves, they determined to prevent other tribes from doing so.

Q. --What more did they do?

A. --They elected a King to reign over them, set the Queen's law at defiance, and drove away and murdered her subjects. 31

Q. --How was the first conflict brought about?

A. --In the month of November, 1859, Governor Browne having, on behalf of the Crown, purchased some land at Waitara, near New Plymouth, from a native named Teira, and sent surveyors to mark the boundaries, a chief--Wiremu Kingi (William King)--stopped the surveyors; and, soldiers being sent by the Governor to support them, fighting at once commenced.

Q. --What was the result of this war?

A. --The whole of the flourishing settlement of New Plymouth, with the exception of the town, was destroyed.

Q. --How was the war terminated?

A. --A truce was entered into with the Natives in May, 1861.

Q. --How did the next outbreak of hostilities occur?

A. --During the war at New Plymouth, the English settlers were driven out of a district called Tataraimaka, which they had held for ten years under Crown Grants; as the Natives refused to restore this district, Governor

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Grey was obliged, in 1863, to resort to force, and thus war was again commenced. 32

Q. --Did this war spread into other districts?

A. --Yes; the Waikato and other tribes joined in it, and formed plans for the wholesale destruction of the European settlements.

Q. --How did they intend to commence?

A. --By destroying Auckland.

Q. --How did it become known that such was their intention?

A. --From a letter written by the Waikato Chief, William Thompson, in which he says:-- "I have consented to attack the whole of the town. I shall spare neither unarmed people nor property. If they prove the strongest, well and good; if the Maori prove the strongest, this is how it will be, the unarmed people will not be left."

Q. --What was the result of this determination on the part of the Maoris.

A. --A long and bloody war ensued, in which 10,000 of the Queen's troops were engaged, besides 5,000 Militia, many Volunteers, and five frigates and sloops of war, resulting ultimately in the suppression of the rebellion.

Q. --Were all the native tribes opposed to the English in this war?

A. --No. Many of them in Cook's Strait, Hawkes Bay, and other parts, and all those to the north of Auckland, remained loyal, and assisted the Queen's troops.

Q. --Is peace now permanently established?

A. --No. On the 12th of this month (July, 1868) a number

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of Natives attacked a small fort at Turo Turo Mokai, near Patea, and killed the commanding officer, Captain Ross, and nine of the garrison. At the same time news has been received that 180 prisoners taken in the late war, and confined at Chatham Island, have escaped, having overpowered the warders, seized a vessel and arms, and landed in Poverty Bay, where they have entrenched themselves at Whareongaongo. It is feared that this will lead to another war.

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Shewing the amount of Wool, Grain, Gold, and other Produce, exported from the various Provinces of New Zealand, during the year ending 31st December, 1867:--
















































Hawkes Bay























NOTE 1. --The total value of Gold exported from New Zealand up to the 31st December,1867, amounted to £14,564,574.

NOTE 2. --The whole of the Gold exported from Canterbury was obtained in that part which now forms the County of Westland.

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In the various Provinces in December,1867.
















Hawkes Bay



































Chatham Islands









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According to a Census taken in December,1867.













Hawkes Bay






Chatham Islands


Military (not included in above)






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In the various Provinces, in December, 1867.











Hawkes Bay








Chatham Islands




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Ward and Reeves, Printers, Gloucester Street, Christchurch.

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[Back cover]

1   Alteration of Boundaries Act, 26th Vict., Cap. 23.
2   Dr. Petermann,99,969 miles.
3   Thevenot's Voyages,1696.
4   Cook's Voyages.
5   Taylor's "Te Ika-a-maui."
6   Sir George Grey's "Polynesian Mythology."
7   By proclamation of Sir George Grey, of 10th March,1848, that part of the North Island south of the river Patea was excluded from New Ulster, and added to New Munster.
8   Hochstetter's "Geology of New Zealand."
9   Drury's "Sailing Directions."
10   Taylor.
11   Hochstetter.
12   New Zealand Spectator, February, 1855.
13   Dr. Haast's "Geological Reports."
14   "A Walk from the Wairau."--Nelson Examiner, May,1850.
15   New Zealand Pilot.
16   Lord Goderich's Despatch, 14th June, 1832, and Governor Bourke's Instructions to Mr. Busby, April, 1833.
17   Treaty of Waitangi.
18   Select Committee on New Zealand, 1844.
19   Parliametary Papers, 1842.
20   Lease to Messrs. Enderby, &c., Parliamentary Papers.
21   "New Zealand Constitution Act, 15 and 16 Vict."
22   Provinces of Taranaki Act, 1858.
23   Sir G. Grey's Proclamation, 17th January, 1853.
24   Despatch from Governor Bowen, July 1st, 1868.
25   Dr. Hochstetter's New Zealand.
26   Address to the Philosophical Institute, by the Vice-President, Mr. E. Dobson.
27   "County of Westland Act,1867."
28   Parliamentary Papers, 1845.
29   Captain Fitzroy's "Remarks on New Zealand."
30   Governor Grey's Despatches.
31   Reports of the Waikato Committee, 1860.
32   Fox's War in New Zealand.

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