1845 - Martin, S. M. New Zealand: in a Series of Letters - [Front Matter]

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  1845 - Martin, S. M. New Zealand: in a Series of Letters - [Front Matter]
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In a Series of Letters:

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New Zealand and the New Zealanders have already furnished materials for so many publications, that most persons will be disposed to think that the field is exhausted. The same remark has frequently been made with regard to the Highlands and the Highlanders, as well as America and the Americans, and yet almost every month brings forth a new volume on each of those subjects, somewhat different, -- sometimes more interesting, and in some cases less so, than the former ones, but, generally speaking, containing something new: so that it appears as if the more was written on any subject, the more extensive does the field become. Dr. Johnson doubtless thought that he had written everything that could be said regarding the Highlands; yet M'Culloch, Brown, Gregory, and a host of others, have since then found abundant materials. It is even so with New Zealand: although extremely prolific in authors, there may still be something new to add.

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While many of the works which have appeared on New Zealand contain very fair descriptions, either of the Aborigines, their habits and customs, or of the country itself--and, in some cases, of both, --yet few of the writers fully appreciate the native character, or even attempt to trace the customs and habits of the New Zealanders to their real source--a peculiar intellectual and moral organisation, a proper acquaintance with which would at once have enabled them to account for many of the apparent inconsistencies which they discover in that interesting people. With the exception of Mr. Terry, no person has as yet attempted to convey to the English public the slightest idea of the doings of our own countrymen in New Zealand. But however interesting the Aboriginal Tribes and their customs may be, the conduct of our own countrymen, and the effects of that conduct, good or bad, must be equally, if not more so. On the latter subject at least, the following Letters will afford further and more authentic information than has yet been published in England. The Letters comprise a period of five years, commencing before the occupation of the country by the British Government, and bringing down the narration of the management, or rather mismanagement, of the Colony to the present time. They are hastily written, and necessarily contain many defects; but, being composed when the circumstances to which they refer were fresh in the

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recollection of the writer, they may be taken as a fair estimate of the feelings of the Settlers towards the Government. Those feelings have happily been somewhat changed since the arrival of Captain Fitz Roy, the late Governor, a part of whose policy at least, if supported by the Home Government, would have tended much to promote the prosperity of New Zealand, and the comfort and happiness of the two races of people who occupy it.

The remarks regarding the New Zealand Company will most likely give offence to certain parties at home and in the Colony connected with that once influential body; but as truth is the object aimed at, private and public offence have not been reckoned, where their avoidance would affect the first. It is scarcely possible, in the narration of mistakes, blunders, and even crimes, not to give offence to some persons; but the parties must blame themselves for having given so many occasions. Had they conducted themselves better, and with a little more regard to the interest and happiness of others, they would be entitled to more consideration.

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INTRODUCTION .......... Page 9


Passage from Sydney. Fellow Passengers. Colonial Morality. Hokianga Bar and Harbour. Wesleyan Missionaries. Natives. Baron de Theiry. His pretensions to the Sovereignty of New Zealand. Declaration of Independence of the Chiefs, asserted by the British Resident and Church Missionaries. New Zealand Roads. Small Native Settlement. Native Houses. Native method of Cooking. Weimate. Extensive Purchase of Lands by the Church Missionaries. Hard, but successful attempt, at obtaining a Night's Lodging. Paiha. Inhospitality of Mr. Baker. Bay of Islands. Storekeeper. Kororarika. Foundation of Kororarika by Benjamin Turner. Other Settlements of the Bay of Islands .... 27


British Resident. Paihia. Church Missionaries. Natives of Kororarika. Bishop Pampalier. Roman Catholic Religion attractive to Uncivilised People. Native Mourning. Native Women Chief Mourners. Tabooed Chief. Orators. Feast. Relish for Whale Flesh. Decrease of Native Population. Effects of European Intercourse fatal to the Females. Prevalence of Infanticide. Character of the European Population; improved of late. Kororarika Association; its Formation, Constitution, and Powers. Native Protection. Europeans to blame for Quarrels with the Natives. Climate of the Bay of Islands; preferable to that of Sydney. Character of the Soil around the Bay of Islands. Reported Fertility of the Thames ........... 52


Passage from the Bay of Islands to Coromandel Harbour. Thames Packet. Island of Waiheki. New Zealand Hospitality rather expensive. Coromandel Harbour. Frith of the Thames similar to the Clyde. Establishment of Mr. Webster. Immorality of the New Zealand Population. Departure for the Thames. Coweranga. State of the Fine Arts in New

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Zealand. Schism among the Inhabitants of Coweranga. Billy Tyson and Billy Mow Mow. Their Residence and Mode of Living. Missionary Station of Houraki. Mr. Preice, the Missionary. His dislike to Roman Catholics. The River Thames. The Piaco. Inhabitants of the Thames destroyed by the Chief Honghi. Purchase of Land from the Aborigines. Rights of Property. Constitution of Tribes ... Page 62


Arrival of Captain Hobson in Sydney to assume the functions of Governor, or Consul, in New Zealand. Deputation appointed to wait upon him. Congratulatory Address, Publication of Proclamations regarding New Zealand. Disposition of Sir George Gipps and the Council of New South Wales towards New Zealand. New Zealand Association. Agent of New Zealand Company; his injudicious Selection of Land. Fitness of New Zealand for the Settlement of European Emigrants. Great Demand for Timber ........... 78


Bay of Islands. Kapiti. Mr. Wakefield. Rauparaha. Cloudy Bay. Immorality of Whaling Gangs. Sick Whaler. Attachment of a Native Woman. Violent Gale of Wind at Port Nicholson. Colonel Wakefield, the New Zealand Company's Agent, Great Want of Humanity. New Zealand Company's Emigrants, Fears for the Failure of the Settlement. Description of Port Nicholson. Britannia and Thorndon. Removal of the Township. Scotch Farmer. Usefulness of the Natives. Scottish Emigrants. Port Nicholson Settlers jealous of Persons from Sydney. The Council of Ten; its Arbitrary Character. Mr. Shortland. Alleged Purchase of Land by the Company's Agent. Dicky Barret. Arrival of Captain Hobson at the Bay of Islands. His Reception. Treaty of Waitangi. Opposition of the Natives to the same. Conduct of the Church Missionaries on that occasion. Hokianga. Kaitaia. Major Bunbury, Bribery and Deception. Natives refuse to sign Treaty. Improper Interference on the part of the Church Missionaries. Illness of Captain Hobson. Government Officers. Russell; Hobson; Clendon Job. Inactivity of the New Zealand Government. Capital of the Colony. Surveyor-General. Government Officers insolent and offensive to the Settlers. Rise in the Value of Land at the Bay of Islands ... 86


Unsettled State of New Zealand Affairs. Thames. Recently-arrived Immigrants and "Old Hands." Natives, their Greed and Extortion. Threatened Robbery. Sawmill, attempts at its Erection. Valley of the Thames. Mate Mate. Native Chapel. Young Chief. A German taken in by the Natives. Sad Perplexity about selecting a Wife. Native Mausoleum. Meeting of Landholders at Coromandel Harbour. Nature of the Land-Claims Bill. Sir George Gipps and Mr. Wentworth. Petition and Pro-

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test. Disgraceful Conduct of Major Bunbury and the other Government Agents. Natives of New Zealand different from those of New Holland. Speech of Sir George Gipps. Right of England to New Zealand. Interview with Captain Hobson at the Bay of Islands. Interview with Sir George Gipps. Mr. Shortland and the Port Nicholson Settlers. Captain Hobson's Complaints of his Officers. Great Expense of the New Zealand Government. Selections of the Government Officers. Arrival of the Land-Claims Commissioners .... Page 103


Printing Company. Land-Claims. Evil Effects of the Measures of Sir G. Gipps on the Agriculture and Commerce of New Zealand. Timber Trade destroyed by the Government. Treatment of Captain Clayton and Mr. Dalziel. Removal of the Seat of Government to Auckland. Sale of Russell abandoned. Sale of Auckland Allotments. Official Jobbing. Separation of the Colony from New South Wales. Rejoicings thereat. Legislative Council, first Sitting and Constitution. Governor's Visit to Wellington. Dissatisfaction of the Settlers with his Conduct while there. Town of Auckland, strangely laid out. Bank. Churches. Mr. Churton and the New Zealand Company. Arrival of a new Lot of Government Officers from England. Imitate Example of Botany Bay Officers. Old and New Registrar. Happy Expedient for serving the former. Mode of appointing Officers in New Zealand. Choice of Auckland for the Capital. Its Eligibility. Comparison between Auckland, Wellington, and the River Thames. Superiority of the latter in point of Land. Central Position of Auckland. Facilities of Communication with the Interior. Beautiful and picturesque Scenery of Auckland. New Land-Claims Bill. Scheme of Mr. Swainson. Its Object. Interview with Mr. Shortland and the Governor ............ 122


Land-Claims Bill abandoned. Defection of Mr. Porter and Mr. Clendon. Mr. Earp. Mr. Attorney-General Swainson's Ideas of Political Integrity. Dismissal of Mr. Earp from the Council. Enmity of the Government towards the Author. Quarrel with the Printing Company. Captain Matthew Richmond. Dissolution of Printing Company, and Purchase of Printing Materials by Government. Government Newspaper, edited by the Attorney-General. Trial before the Supreme Court. Judge Martin. Memorials and Public Meetings. Mental Irritation, Illness, and Death of Captain Hobson. His Character. Mr. Shortland succeeds. His Pretensions. Extravagant Expenditure of the New Zealand Government. Monetary Embarrassment. Attempt to negotiate a Loan. Quarrels with the Aborigines. Tauranga. Mongonui. Visit of Colonel Wakefield to Auckland. Arrival of Press and Types from Sydney ... 141


Wairau Massacre. Letter from Cook's Straits. Origin of the Quarrel. Rash and improper Conduct of Mr. Thompson, the Police Magistrate.

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Rauparaha and Rangihaeata. The Conflict. Remarks and Reflections on the Wairau Massacre. Captain Wakefield's Death. Evil Effects of being in bad Company. Proceedings at Wellington, on hearing of the Conflict. Proclamation. The erratic Police Magistrate. Patronage of Mr. Shortland. Importation of Parkhurst Boys. Injury to themselves and the Natives .......... Page 162


Government of Mr. Shortland. Mr. Shortland's Object. Mr. Cooper, the Collector of Customs, a Defaulter. Attempts on the part of the Government Officers to uphold Mr. Cooper. Cooper's Conduct and Character. Continued Excitement in the Southern Settlements; increased by Major Richmond's Conduct. State of the Colony and Government under Mr. Shortland. Arrival of Captain Fitz Roy. Address to the Governor. Levee. Native Addresses. Mr. Shortland takes offence, and is by his Friends persuaded to resign. Promise of Justice to the Old Settlers ...... 176


Mr. Shortland's Successor. The Governor's Decision regarding the Wairau Massacre offensive to the Nelson Settlers. Quarrel with the Natives in Auckland. Issue of Government Debentures. Satisfactory Settlement of the Land-Claims. Partial Acknowledgment of the Rights of the Aborigines. Legislative Council, a Mockery. Advantages of a proper Representative Government. Business of the Session. Estimates. New Taxes. Native Trust Bill. Partiality and Injustice of the same. Native Lands. Post-Office. Character of the new Governor. Mrs. Fitz Roy. Charitable Institutions. Captain Fitz Roy's Visit to Sydney injurious to the Colony. Mr. Freeman, Bishop Broughton, and Mr. Churton. Major Richmond and Sir George Gipps ....... 189


Effects of the new Taxes on the Aborigines. The Chief Heki. Serious Quarrel with the Natives at the Bay of Islands. Interview with the Chief. Satisfactory Settlement of the Quarrel. Abolition of Customs. Direct Taxation. Removal of the Restrictions on the Sale of Native Lands. Regulations rather defective; how remedied. Claim of the Old Settlers of New Zealand for Compensation from the Government. Improved Prospects of the Colony. Class of Emigrants for whom New Zealand is best adapted ............ 216


Capabilities of New Zealand. Curse of Misgovernment. People driven away from the Colony. South American Emigrant. Indian Officer New Zealand preferable to any other British Colony. New South Wales compared with New Zealand. Great superiority of the latter. New Zealand compared with the North American Colonies; its superiority. Per-

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fect Freedom from Fevers and all Epidemic Diseases accounted for. Indian Invalids. Hot Baths and Mineral Springs. Mineral Springs near Auckland, the Thames, and the Piaco. New South Wales Emigration Traps. Sheep Farming an unprofitable Occupation in New South Wales. Agriculture. Cheapness of Living. Facilities for the Establishment of New Settlers. Pig Hunting. Grazing. Sheep and Cattle Farming. Causes of the Failure of Colonists and the Prosperity of Colonies. Exports of New Zealand. Copper. Manganese. Copper Mines of Kauwau and the Great Barrier. Timber, Spars, Fish, Flax, Oil, Whaling, Dyewoods, &c ........ Page 235


NEW ZEALAND COMPANY, Natives oppose the Location of Settlers. Agent of the Company to blame. Conduct of the New Zealand Company. Attempt to direct the Indignation of the Settlers from the Company to the Government and the Natives. Commissioner's Report. Impossibility of establishing a Title to the Company's Lands. Unhappy Condition of the Company's Settlers. The Governor's Attempt to relieve them. Wellington. Nelson. Wanganui. New Plymouth. Injury done to New Zealand by the Company. Mistakes committed by the Company. New Edinburgh. Manakau Company a Deception. Their Victims relieved by the Governor ....... 263


Aborigines. General Remarks on the Treatment of Aborigines. The Causes of their Extermination. Disease. Faith in Medicine. Method of living. Missionary Efforts to improve the Condition of the Natives. Where deficient. Cannibalism. Taraea. Native Slaves. Ignorance of the Native Character. How to estimate it. Improvement of the Human Race slow, gradual, and progressive. Intellectual, moral, and social Character of the New Zealanders. Chief. King. Religious Feeling. Want of Conscience. Covetousness. Benevolence. Vanity. Deficient Courage. Disregard of Life. Eroa. Want of National Affection. Infanticide. Increase of Population slow. Temperance. Physical Strength. Summary of the Native Character. Moral Influence exercised by the Europeans. Greatly destroyed by various Acts of the Government, by the New Zealand Company, and the Bishop of New Zealand. Conduct of the Church Missionaries contrasted with that of the Wesleyans. Religious Dissensions; their effects. Heki. Bunting. Rev. Mr. Turton. Best means of improving the Aborigines in a religious, moral, and physical point of view. Missionaries. English Schools. Opposition of Missionaries to English Schools. Absurdity of the Political Position of the Natives. The Laws of England inapplicable to their present condition. Native Exemption Bill imperfect. Sale of Lands. Necessity of establishing Hospitals, with the view of preserving the New Zealanders. Benefits conferred upon the Europeans by the Improvement of the Aborigines ........ 275

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Colonial Society. A Native Entertainment. Social Condition of Auckland Unmarried Ladies few and highly esteemed. Pretensions of the Government Officers. Effects of the Attempt to establish an Official Aristocracy. Attempt to reconcile the Government Officers and Private Settlers. Places of Public Amusement. Morality of Auckland. Clergy and Churches. Religious Dissensions transferred from the Living to the Dead. Refusal to bury the Dead. Bishop's College. Public Institutions. Reading-Room Library. Mechanics' Institute. Agricultural Society. Total Abstinence Society. Lodges. Philharmonic Society. Charitable Institutions. ....... Page 320


Conflict at the Bay of Islands. Result of Government Impolicy. Friendly Feeling of the Natives towards the Settlers. Reflections on the Present State of the Colony. Bay of Islands Residents entitled to Compensation. Impolicy and Injustice of seizing upon or taxing the Lands of the Aborigines. Poverty of the Settlers. Injustice of imposing a Land Tax. Representative Government. Property Rate Ordinance a good basis for Qualification. Right of Discovery considered. The Dispute between the New Zealand Company and the Government. Agreement of Lord John Russell. The proper understanding thereof. Church Missionaries -- unfair Charges preferred against them by the New Zealand Company. ..... 333


Treaty of Waitangi.......... 360

Protest............. 364

Property-Rate Ordinance......... 368

Address to the Governor.......... 373

Proclamation........... 375

Meteorological Tables.......... 378

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