1817 - Nicholas, J. L. Narrative of a Voyage to New Zealand [Vol.I] - [Front Matter]

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  1817 - Nicholas, J. L. Narrative of a Voyage to New Zealand [Vol.I] - [Front Matter]
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Supplementary Observations on the Origin of the People,



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A Chief of New Zealand
Published Sept 1. 1817 by James Black & Son Tavistock St. Covent Garden.

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Performed in the years 1814 and 1815,
Principal Chaplain of New South Wales.

--------utilitati consulens hominum et ei quam saepe commemoro, humanae societati.
Cicero de Offic. lib. iii. cap. 5.




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THE following Narrative was composed from a journal which the Author kept during his voyage to New Zealand; and for the sake of minutely particularizing the incidents in their proper order, he has still preserved an uninterrupted succession of dates up to the period of his departure from that island; avoiding, however, as much as it was practicable, that abrupt formality of statement which the journal form prescribes. Besides, the New Zealanders are a people so little known to Europeans, and at the same time so peculiarly interesting, that he conceived an account of the daily occurrences he met with during his short intercourse with them, would be more acceptable to the reader than any

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general detail. But as this plan obliged him to conform to the order of time and circumstance, he was necessarily restricted from treating diffusely on particular subjects, however closely connected with the country and its inhabitants. To supply this defect, the Author has subjoined, under the head of Supplementary Observations, such topics as could not be introduced or dilated on in the Narrative, without too long a suspension of the train of events.

Aware that accuracy of narration must constitute the chief merit of a work like the present, the Author has been scrupulously exact with respect to it. The occurrences which came under his own observation are detailed with a strict regard to truth, nor has he admitted any statements on the authority of the natives, without examining the veracity and motives of the persons who made them. Many of the incidents possess a considerable degree of interest, while even those which seem trifling in themselves are yet parti-.

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cularly important, as they tend to develope the character of man in the wildest state of ferocious barbarism; and it will be recollected, that in civilized as well as in savage life, the dispositions of individuals are often best discovered in matters apparently insignificant. The object of the Author in visiting New Zealand is stated in the commencement of the work, where he has endeavoured to render justice to the views of the benevolent Gentleman whom he accompanied; and this Narrative, while it embraces other topics, is also a record of that Gentleman's proceedings in the cause of humanity.

In the course of the Narrative, as well as in the supplementary part, the Author has appealed occasionally to the authority of Captain Cook and the learned Doctor Forster, for the sanction of some of his remarks; though in treating of cannibalism as it prevails in New Zealand, he found it necessary to differ from their separate opinions. He must, however, acknowledge himself much

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indebted to both these Gentlemen, and to the latter in particular, for the information he has derived from his philosophical researches.

The Author has been enabled to give in this work a faithful account of the destruction of the ship Boyd, which in the year 1809 was cut off by some tribes in New Zealand, and the crew and passengers all massacred and devoured, except four individuals. The particulars of this horrible enormity he has related as they were detailed to him by the chief perpetrator, a savage of the most ferocious disposition.

In tracing the origin of the New Zealanders to the continent of Asia, the Author does not mean to adhere pertinaciously to the hypothesis he has assumed; his object being only to advance such arguments ou the subject as appear best supported by analogy, without presuming in any instance to categorical affirmation. If it should be objected to this work, that it does not take an enlarged

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and comprehensive view of New Zealand and its inhabitants, the Author's reply is, that in the first place he should distrust his abilities for such a task; and secondly, did he deem himself equal to it, a few short weeks would not be sufficient for its completion. During the limited time he sojourned in that remote country, he let no occurrence that was worthy of being noticed escape his industry; and though an abler pen might in the same short period have given a more finished detail, still he trusts that the result of his observations may not be uninteresting to the public.

18, Southampton-Row, Russell Square,
August, 1817.

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Introductory remarks -- Benevolence of Mr. Marsden -- Mission to New Zealand proposed by him to the Missionary Society--Approved, and Missionaries chosen--Tippahee, a New Zealand chief, visits Port Jackson--Particulars respecting him--Duaterra, his successor, brought to New South Wales--Some account of him--Character of the Missionaries--The disposition of the natives tried and found favourable--Mr. Marsden resolves on going with the Mission himself--The Author's reason for accompanying him--Second visit of Duaterra to Port Jackson--Two other chiefs come with him--Description of them--New Zealanders abhorred at Port Jackson--Proclamation of the Governor - - Page 1-34


Port Regulation--The abuse of it censured--The form explained -- We are detained a week in

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Watson's Bay--A sudden change in the behaviour of the chiefs--The reason of it--Duaterra is undeceived--Censure of malignant calumniators--Success of the Missionaries in Otaheite-- We set sail--Journal of the voyage kept--A convict is concealed on board the ship--Pursued, but cannot be found--The crew and passengers get violently sea-sick--Ludicrous behaviour of Korra-korra--The chiefs entertain us with a song-- Opinions of the New Zealanders on the creation of the world--Their gods--Two curious traditions among them--A ceremony resembling baptism practised by them -- 35-62


Journal continued--Witticism of Tui--Remarkable expression of Duaterra--Bad weather--The crew all sick again--Voracious appetite of the New Zealanders--The weather changes and becomes fine--Gaiety of the New Zealanders--Specimens of their songs--War exhibition by Korra-korra-- Account of his escape from Captain Seddons -- Duaterra resumes the dress of his native country --Description of it--Superstitious prediction--We pass the islands called the Three Kings--Description of them--Arrive at the North Cape-- The sea boisterous there--Captain Cook's danger --Communication opened with the natives--The chiefs go on shore--Two canoes visit us, bringing a chief who comes on board--His behaviour and dress described--Affection of the New Zea-

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landers--Dirty in their persons--Other canoes arrive--Traffic opened--Cupidity of the sailors --Restraints imposed--Visited by Tarapeedo, a young chief--Account of Jem the Otaheitan--Several other canoes arrive--Duaterra returns-- Dissuades Mr. Marsden from going on shore --The ship gets under weigh. --The coast described .....63-99


Departure from the North Cape--Arrive at Doubtless Bay--Duaterra's account of it--Dissuaded from landing there--Proceed on our course--Arrive at the harbour of Wangeroa--Description of the coast--Reach the Cavalles--Land upon one of the islands--Arrive at a village--Description of the huts--An excursion into the interior of the island--Natural productions--Beautiful prospect --Affecting interview of Korra-korra with his relations--Arrival of a young chief--Return to the ship--Death of a New Zealander--Shunghi visits his territory--We anchor between the Cavalles and the main land--Meeting between Duaterra and the chief of the tribe of Wangeroa--Reconciliation between them--We go on shore--Arrive at an encampment of warriors --- 100-125


Invitation to approach the camp--Reception--Description of the warriors--Their dress and weapons

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--Character of the chief George--We return to the village, and dine there in public--Venerable old men--Description of the village and the adjacent country--We revisit the camp, intending to spend the night there--Supper prepared--Circumstances respecting the Boyd--George's account of the cutting off of that vessel--Cruelty and imprudence of the Captain--The horrid massacre of all the crew and passengers occasioned by it-- Reflections on that catastrophe -- The warriors retire to rest--Our awful situation--Remain in security through the night--Strange appearance of the camp in the morning --- 126-156


Reflections suggested by the preceding night--The Wangeroa chiefs are invited on board the ship --Cordially received--Duaterra arranges the form of making presents to them--Respect of the New Zealanders for old age -- Duaterra's caution to George--The chiefs return on shore--Advice to commanders of ships on visiting this island--Passion of the natives for axes and fire-arms--The ship gets under weigh--Arrives at Point Pocock-- Enters the Bay of Islands--Description of the harbour and its vicinity--Korra-korra being visited by his brother and son, proceeds to his district--The Author and Mr. Marsden go on shore --Proceed to the town of Rangehoo--Followed by crowds of the natives, all happy to see them-- Surprise occasioned by the sight of the cattle--

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Incredulity -- Description of Rangehoo -- Duaterra's residence and family--A present made to his head wife--Widow and daughter of Tippahee --A New Zealand beauty--A dance and song by three females--The Author and his friend return to the ship--Revisit the island next day--Clemency of Duaterra towards the seducer of one of his wives--Adultery punished with death in New Zealand--Curious distinction as to the guilt of the parties.....157-186


The natives again assemble in crowds--Forwardness of the women--Tippahee's nephew--A consecrated place--Not allowed to approach it--The Author invited by the natives to partake of the fern-root, which is their principal food--Manner of preparing it--Industry of Duaterra's head wife --Visit of state from Korra-korra--Description of the scene--He brings some presents to the Author and his friend --A grand sham-fight -- Curious manner of commencing it--An intrepid queen and her female warriors--Mary and her canoe--Place of worship prepared by Duaterra--Divine service performed there on Christmas-day--Behaviour of the chiefs and their people on this occasion--Visit to the timber district--Description of the chief Tarra--His politeness and hospitality--His young wife, Mrs. Goshore--Return to the vessel--Two fugitive convicts come on board--Their wretched - appearance--The manner of their getting to New

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Zealand--Their severe treatment among the natives, and the reason of it --- 187-219


The Author and his friends proceed to the principal timber district on the Cowa-Cowa--Visit the chief Tekokee--Description of him--The forests and surrounding country described--Curious practice with regard to thieves--Tarra, Mrs. Goshore, and Tupee, found on board by the Author and his party on their return--Character of Tupee--Trees and shrubs--The climate better than that of New South Wales--Excursion to visit the chief Warrakee--Fisheries--Fish plentiful, and their manner of dressing it--Excellent situation for a settlement --Desire of the missionaries to establish themselves there--Opposed by Mr. Marsden -- The chief Pomaree visits the Active--His character --Excursion to Wycaddee -- Specimen of New Zealand wit--Ingenuity of the children--District of the chief Wiveeah--Obliging disposition of the natives--Some forests visited --- 220-247


Return to Wycaddee--Jealousy and discontent of Wiveeah--Description of a village and the adjacent scenery--A leper--Alarm and curiosity of the natives--Tommy Drummond met by his mother; their affecting interview--An interesting family--Gunnah takes leave of the Author and

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his friends, and returns to Rangehoo--His services very useful--Visit of Korra-korra and a party of his friends, including his uncle, the chief Bennee --The Author and Mr. Marsden return with them on shore--Progress of their excursion--Prevented from going to Korra-korra's residence, and invited by Bennee to visit his own district, which is agreed to--Bennee's hippah or garrison--Singular superstitions--Ridiculed by he Author, and defended by Tui--Disagreeable night spent--Occasional remark on the plantations--Arrival at an agreeable village, plentifully supplied with provisions-- --Extraordinary and disgusting voracity--The party, with the Author, return to the vessel-- Traffic with the natives commenced --- 248-284


Arrival of more of the natives to trade with the ship --Their shrewdness in making bargains--Curious distinction of rank--The areekees, or superior chiefs--The power of the chiefs generally absolute--Their pride and vanity--Their marriage alliances confined to their own rank--Visit of Duaterra with provisions--His account of a meeting between himself and a hostile chief--Barbarous cruelty of Pomaree--Malignity of the chiefs towards each other--Tarra's slander of Tippahee, and its dreadful effects--Arrival of new visitors, and a description of their canoe--Traffic recommenced--An excursion on shore by the Author and his friend---Maternal affection--Prudence of

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the New Zealanders in laying up provisions-- Reflections on it--Artifice of Pomaree--His proficiency in a barbarous art--Mr. Marsden's caution against exhibiting it on board ..... 285-312


Return of the Author and his party to Rangehoo-- The buildings commenced--Scenes presented to the Author in a short excursion--Visit to the queen of Tippoonah -- Arrival of Shunghi and his brother Kangeroa--Divine service performed on shore--The Author and Mr. Marsden proceed with Shunghi to Wyemattee, his place of residence--Some particulars of the calamity that befel Tippahee and his tribe--Singular contrivance of Shunghi -- Manner of cooking potatoes--Local descriptions -- Gaiety of Shunghi's people -- Friendly reception at the village of a chief--Refreshments taken there--Arrival at Wyemattee-- Great strength of the hippah, and its remarkable fortifications--Its population and interior buildings--Excursion to Lake Morberree--Its inviting situation, and the advantages it offers for forming a principal settlement there--Suggestions of the Author to that effect ---- 313-348


Return from Lake Morberree--Remark of Tui--Departure from a friendly village, and occurrences on the way--The Author and his friends arrive

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again at the residence of Shunghi--Arrival at the village of the chief Tarriar, with remarks on the land contiguous to it--Scrupulous observance of the taboo--Tattooing instruments, and manner of performing that operation; with its physical effects--The party joined by Duaterra--A boat race between him and Shunghi -- Return to the ship-- The missionarys settled in their new habitation-- Inquiry into a charge of seduction, and the issue of it--Expedition to the river Thames, with the names and description of the persons composing it--Arrival at the Cavalles--Two canoes visit the ship--Duaterra's formidable reception of them-- The Author accompanies Duaterra in pursuit of a thief--Incidents on that occasion, and return of the party...... 349-381


Departure from the Cavalles--Mirth of Duaterra's warriors--The New Zealanders addicted to falsehood--An instance of it in a groundless story related by Korra-korra--The ship arrives at Bream Head--Is visited by a neighbouring chief--Duaterra's hostile display before him, and his motives for it--Arrival of more visitors from the shore-- The ship proceeds on her course, and enters the liver Thames--Anchors there at some distance from its mouth--Shoupah, the areekee, comes on board, and receives presents--His extensive power and warlike character--His allies, and the expedition they were then going upon--The ship sails

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up towards his district--Is delayed by a violent wind, which Korra-korra curiously accounts for-- Visited by the chief Phiti--Gunnah's traffic-- Arrival at Shoupah's village--The men all absent from it--A frightful mourner found there--The Author and his friends visit the residence of Phiti --Trade commenced with the natives--Traffic in slaves carried on in New Zealand--Return to the vessel--Phiti and his friends repeat their visit on board--Their mirthful departure--Contradictory opinions of Duaterra and one of his countrymen respecting them .... 382-409


Departure from the river Thames--Captain Cook's account of that place--The ship enters Bream Bay--Description of it--Affair between the Author and Korra-korra--Arrival at a small bay-- Explored by the Author and Mr. Marsden--The ship visited by Moyhanger, a native who had been brought to England--Some particulars respecting him--Mr. Marsden and the Author invited by him to go on shore--His disgrace and expulsion from his native district ---- 410-431

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