1845 - Wakefield, E.J. Adventure in New Zealand [Vol.I.] - [Front Matter]

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  1845 - Wakefield, E.J. Adventure in New Zealand [Vol.I.] - [Front Matter]
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From 1839 to 1844;


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London: Printed by WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, Stamford Street.


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Early History of New Zealand--Tasman, 1642--Cook, 1769-- Church Mission, 1814 -- Magistrates appointed -- Wesleyan Mission, 1822--Travellers and their books--Visit of Hongi to England, 1820--Baron de Thierry--New Zealand Company of 1825--"Land-sharking" and straggling colonization--Hongi's fire-arms--Bloodshed and depopulation -- Captain Stewart and Rauperaha--Letter of Thirteen Chiefs to William IV., 1831-- British Resident--Continuation of wars--Declaration of Independence and Recognition of Flag, 1835--Absurdities--New Zealand Association of 1837--Negotiations with Government-- Hostility of Mr. Dandeson Coates--Offer by Lord Glenelg of a Charter to the Association--Refused: why--Mr. Baring's Bill, 1838--New Zealand Land Company of 1839 -- Its views-- Colonel Wakefield appointed to take charge of Preliminary Expedition--I resolve to accompany him ... Page 1


Departure from Plymouth--Passengers--Voyage--First sight of New Zealand---Cook's Strait---Queen Charlotte's Sound--Ship Cove -- Natives--Village--Wretched houses -- Dispute with Natives--Reconciliation--European settlement--Messenger sent --Returns with two Englishmen--Mountains--Forest--Scenery of Queen Charlotte's Sound--Tory Channel--Native Pa, or Fort--H. M. B. Pelorus-- Te-awa-iti--Richard Barrett--Tribes of Cook's Strait--Proprietorship of land unsettled--Vague notions of Natives--Plan of Native Reserves as real payment ... 19


The Whaling-town--Try-works--Joseph Toms--History of Te-awa-iti-- Foundation--Hardships--Progress--Wages of whalers--Summer life--Jealousies--Lawlessness --Hospitality--Clean-

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liness--Native whale-boats--Wretched houses and food--Boat expedition--Tide-rip--Jack Guard--His perilous adventures in 1834--H. M. S. Alligator--Port Gore--Admiralty Bay-- Wild cattle--Estuary of the Pelorus--Bivouac--Ducks--Tree-ferns -- Teal -- Tributary Natives -- Pigeons -- Precautions -- Rapids--Canoe--Horror of brandy--Old Pa--Phormium tenax --Scraping--Guard's Island--A sacred Chief--Gale--Arrival at the ship--Climate--Illness of Natives--Departure for Port Nicholson--Shores of Cook's Strait ..... 44


Entrance of Port Nicholson--Warepori and Epuni--History of the tribe -- Missionary notions--Talk about land -- Tangi, or crying--Nayti--Excursion round harbour--Speeches as to sale of land--Native cookery--Mocking-bird--Discussions--Sham- fighting--The purchase--Opposition--Vague notions of Natives as to ownership of land--No title but occupancy--Distribution of payment--Signature of deed--Nicknames--The Huia--Fish --Native hook--Preparations for rejoicing--Gathering--Dress --War-dance--Haka, or recitative--Feast -- Contentment of Natives--Nomenclature--Our satisfaction--Sanguine prospects --Intentions towards Natives--Hostility of Native missionaries --Reasons ......... 70


Port Underwood in Cloudy Bay--Angry Natives--Peace restored --Whaling-stations--Fishing--We sail for Te-awa-iti--Fighting Bay--We cross the strait to Kapiti--Islets near it--Battle of Waikanae--Funeral feast--Rauperaha--His appearance--His history--Hongi's wars--The Kawia tribe-- Te Pehi Kupe--Invasion of Cook's Strait--The contending tribes--Immense slaughter--Allies--Siege and capture of Kapiti--Extermination of Aborigines--Visit of Te Pehi to England--His return and death--Rauperaha's revenge--His White coadjutors--He acquires influence--Opposes the Ngatiawa--His unbounded treachery--His behaviour to White men--Rangihaeata assists him in marauding -- Whaling-stations -- Waikanae village-- Wounded and dead--Rauperaha on board--Hiko--Negotiations for sale of land--News from Sydney--Quarrel among chiefs--

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Threats --Reconciliation -- The deed signed--Rauperaha's rapacity--Gale of wind--Mana, or Table Island--East Bay in Queen Charlotte's Sound--Funeral of trader at Te-awa-iti--Negotiations for land--Another deed--Scramble--Extent of rights now acquired--Return to Kapiti--Land-buyers from Sydney-- War-canoes-- Warepori and Rauperaha-- Wanganui chiefs--A warrior--Rauperaha repudiates his bargain ... 105


Search for Wanganui river--Appearance of country--The chief E Kuru lands--Coast--Tonga Riro and Mount Egmont-- Sugar-loaf Islands--Surf--Native greetings--Barrett and Doctor Dieffenbach land--False Hokianga--Hokianga--Signals--Pilot --European Settlements--Nature of country--Wesleyan mission --Mr. Bumby, a worthy missionary--Kauri timber--Natives tamed, but not civilized--Lieutenant Macdonnell's establishment-- Vineyard--Baron de Thierry--Colonel Wakefield buys title-deeds of Wairau near Cloudy Bay--Our shipwreck outside Kaipara--A cool man-of-war's man--Perils in a boat--Estuary of Kaipara-- Bivouac--Mosquitoes--The Navarino--A sailor's hospitality-- The Tory is hove down--Colonel Wakefield proceeds to Bay of Islands-- Wairoa river--Mr. Symonds--Country about Kaipara --Mr. White, a missionary and "land-shark"--The Guide arrives --Mr. John Blackett--Dr. Dorset and I embark in the Guide-- Dangers--A whaler at sea--Navigation--Sugar-loaf Islands-- Moturoa--Barrett's adventures--Mr. White--His letters--The view from Sugar-loaf Peak--Dangerous situation of the Guide --Our dormitory--Twelve days on a rocky islet--Missionary hostility--Native language as manufactured by the missionaries-- Punishment of adultery--Return of the Guide--Two deeds signed --Preparations for a skirmish--Mediation--Barracoota fishing-- Arrival at Port Nicholson ...... 144


Shipping and tents insight--We land--Greetings--Colonel Wake- field's journey--Overland path--Roman Catholic converts--Ko- rorareka in the Bay of Islands--Hire of the Guide and her crew --Port Hardy--Native raillery--D'Urville's Island--Voyage in whale-boat--Welcome by natives--Arrival of emigrants--Rivals in buying land-Mr. Tod--The Rev. Henry Williams--Richard Davis, the native missionary--Dispute between missions--The

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massacre of Puakawa--Sincere regrets--Colonists from Australia --Authority of Native chiefs employed against lawless White men--First squatting--Good class of colonists--The settlement like an extensive pic-nic--Friendliness of the Natives--Their first doubts and fears--How removed--Native-built house, or ware--The tent of an Eastern traveller--The hut of an Australian "over-lander"--Cattle from Sydney--Proclamation by the Governor of New South Wales against further land-sharking-- Committee of colonists--Why and how formed--Provisional Constitution--Agreement--Flood--The Cuba--Weather--Squadron arrives--Bank--Salute--Canoe procession--Ratification of Constitution by Native chiefs ...... 184


An exploring journey--The "boys" pack their loads--Farewell --Porirua--Parramatta -- Waikawa--Nayti--Failure of the attempt to civilize him --Potato-grounds--Pukerua--Madman --Kumera, or sweet potato--Melons--Coast--Waikanae--Village of the Wanganui chief--Pukeko shooting--Native houses --Night alarm--Whalers and Natives at Kapiti--Gratitude for books--Shark's tooth--Canoe voyage--Karaka-nuts--Coast-- Surf-- Wangaihu river--Pumice-stone--E Kuru-- Wanganui river--Encampment--Speeches--Putikiwaranui--Head chiefs-- Vestiges of Rev. Henry Williams--Fishing fleet--Fishing villages--Eagerness to sell land -- Native mats--Dishonesty reproved--Land-mark--Cliffy shore--- Waitotara --Suspicion--A tutua, or "plebeian" tribe--Missionary calumnies--Valley--Fishing-weir-- Lampreys -- Tedious travelling -- Wenuakura, or "land of plumage"--Hospitality--Crowding-- Tihoe pa--Patea --Robbery -- Utu, or payment --Threats--Restitution -- I am obliged to return--Parrots--Open plains--Religious scruples exaggerated--Excursion up the Wanganui--Scenery--Village --Return to Wangaihu--Camp--Fleet of canoes--Rangitikei river -- Eels -- Native gluttony--Prayers at sea -- Festival at Waikanae--Shipping at Kapiti-- Whale-boat journey--Mana-- Rangihaeata --Carving--We go on to Pitone. .... 216


House built by Natives--Manuka wood--Stock from Australia-- Horses--Arrival of Captain Hobson at the Bay of Islands--

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Council--Newspaper--Appointments--Harmony interrupted by a stranger--The Rev. Henry Williams--Proceedings of the Lieutenant-Governor at the Bay of Islands--Mr. Williams sent to extend them to Cook's Strait--Mr. Williams's selfish views-- Clergymen arrive from England--Settlers in the valley of the Hutt--Cheerful progress--Politics--Contentment--Thorndon--Dicky Barrett--New South Wales land-sharks--The Surprise schooner--Voyage to Wanganui--E Kuru's joy--Arrival-- The Rev. Messrs. Williams and Hadfield--Cession of sovereignty--Delusion--Gathering of tribes--Purchase of Wanganui--Conference--Authority of a head chief--Deed signed--Distribution--Greediness--Scramble--Fears--Anger of E Kuru-- Homai no homai, or a "gift for a gift"--Freshet--Return to Port Nicholson ......... 270


Town of "Britannia"--English boy killed by native--Harmony undisturbed--Fire of "Cornish Row"--Earthquake--Notice to inhabitants to drill--Lieutenant Shortland, the Colonial Secretary, arrives with troops--Burlesque pomposity of a constable -- Proclamation of British sovereignty--British loyalty and good feeling--Mounted policemen--Brutality--Laws of a penal colony --Mr. Tod excites Natives against the settlers--They begin to repudiate--Change in feelings of Natives--The chiefs offended by the Government authorities--News from the Bay of Islands-- Riot of Natives quelled by military--Survey--I postpone my return to England ........ 294


A colonist hires a whaling-station--Porirua--Native custom of plunder--H. M. S. Herald--Kapiti--The whalers--Ingredients of the class--Character--Knowledge--Early history--Savage intercourse between shipping and Natives--Mr. Marsden brought convicts to New Zealand--Sealers of the south--Foundation of whaling settlements in Cook's Strait -- Perils -- Increase in strength--Precarious commerce--Social arrangements--Articles --Laws of the Bay--The season--Ranks--Whaling argot, or "slang"--Preparations--The boats--The tackle--Words of

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command--Works on shore--Officers--Native wives, or wahine --A whale signalled--The chase--Stratagems--A new hand-- "Making fast"--Running--She "sounds"--The headsman-- Killing a whale--The "flurry"--Towing home--Orgies--Hospitality--A whaler's house--Cleanliness--The "old man"--His boat--Discipline of whalers--Courage--Dispute between whalers and Rauperaha--Improvement among Natives owing to whalers --Bad qualities acquired from the same source--The whalers the first pioneers--Their life in the new settlements--Sawyers-- Traders--"Beach-combers"--List of whaling-stations in 1844-- Statistics--Inexpediency of shore-whaling--The whalers might have become buccaneers--Disorderly whalers--Industrious carpenter-- Wareho fishing ...... 308


Company's store-ships--Major Bunbury's expedition in H. M. S. Herald--Proclamation of British sovereignty in Stewart's and Middle Islands--Rauperaha and Rangihaeata sign the cession of sovereignty--Cattle at Cloudy Bay--Public meeting--Colonel Wakefield deputed to present address to the Lieutenant-Governor --News from England--Plymouth Company of New Zealand-- Sanguine hopes--Purchase of the Chatham Islands--Selection of town-lands--New Zealand Land Bill of New South Wales--Inconsistencies in government--Mr. Busby--Panic of settlers--A trip to the Manawatu river--Level country--Ship-building-- Morose chief--Ascent of the river by a trader--Its course-- Return to Port Nicholson--The Chilian project--Return of Colonel Wakefield with the answer of the Lieutenant-Governor --Deputation to Sir George Gipps--The towns in the North-- French expedition--Its object frustrated--Second riot at the Bay of Islands--Disturbance at Port Nicholson--Proclamation of Lieutenant Shortland--His offensive pomposity--His undignified conduct--A bullock-driver--Settlers drowned at Pitone--Affectionate Natives--Exploring expedition towards Mount Egmont .......... 344


Journey to Otaki--Troublesome natives-- Waikawa--Natives deceive and rob us--Firmness procures restitution--Manawatu--

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Rangitikei--Scarcity of food--Timid natives--Fine country-- Cold--Fording rivers-- Wanganui--Greetings--E Kuru gives me a house--His chieftain-like treatment of his inferiors--New Zealand slaves--Missionaries--Native feud--Battle of Waitotara --Ship-building--Confirmation of the purchase--Return to Kapiti--Walk to Pitone--Harmlessness of night-air .. 371


Ships arrive from Sydney--Arrival of Mr. Murphy as Police Magistrate--Departure of the Colonial Secretary--Straggling news from the north--Death of Mr. Bumby--Progress of Britannia-- Club--Country lands--Mr. Bidwill--"Captain" Williams- Hire of a schooner--Cloudy Bay--Suspicious death of Mr. Wilton --Queen Charlotte's Sound--Wild cattle hunting on Kapiti-- Expedition of the Brougham with Mr. Murphy and the soldiers-- Want of a Coroner and Jury--Licences--Discontent of whalers --Advantages of barter with good natives at Wanganui. ... 391


News from the north--Selection of Capital--H. M. S. Favourite-- Secret calumnies against Port Nicholson--Abstraction of labourers by Government--The burlesque foundation of Auckland --Mr. Felton Mathew's epaulettes--Sawyers'activity--Absence of Police Magistrate--News from England--New Zealand Church Society--Wool--The name of the town changed to "Wellington"--Return of the deputation from Sydney--Concessions made by Sir George Gipps--Ill-humour of Captain Hobson--The Rev. Mr. Churton--Flour-ships from Valparaiso--Health Officer appointed--Harbour-master paid by the Company--Preliminary expedition of the Plymouth Company--Lord Eliot advocates the cause of New Zealand in the House of Commons--Grief for the death of Lord Durham--Statesmen and colonists--Abstraction of labour for neighbouring colonies--Plain of the Wairarapa-- Arrival of a Wesleyan Missionary--Christmas at Kapiti--Plunder of a wreck near Wanganui--Ascent of the Wanganui--Rapids --Canoe-song--E Kuru and his guests--Open house at Wanganui--A feudal retinue--Gale of wind--Drift out to sea-- Roman Catholic Bishop--A "happy New Year"--Hopes and fears--Merry disputes between higher and lower classes--Anniversary fete--Injudicious missionary injunctions ... 408

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Official crimping of labourers--Withdrawal of the troops from Wellington--Once employed--Surprise of colonists--Anger-- Notice against occupation of lands--Sir John Franklin reproves crimping--The New Plymouth pioneers--Public meeting--Petition for the recall of Captain Hobson--Why sent home informally --Mr. Petre--Mr. Sinclair--Increasing trade with the natives-- Working Men's Land Association--Lady Franklin ... 436


The Sandfly--Joseph Toms--Tory Channel--We meet the Brougham--Foundation of New Plymouth--Calm night-- Wanganui bar---Curious effects of mist--Native news--Progress of the European settlement--Lawless vagabonds--Fears of a war-party, or taua--Determination to reconnoitre--Pleasant journey with a fleet of canoes--Gaiety of the natives--Exaggerated gravity of a missionary--Rapids--E Kuru's political dilemma --Fortified villages---Spies--Doubts---Encampment--First view of the war-party--Their camp--Speeches--The patriarch Heuheu--Interview with him--Pukihika pa--The war-party at the settlement --Good faith--Native guards ..... 446


New Zealand is made a separate colony--The New Zealand Company is Chartered--Reconciled with the Government--Lord John Russell's Agreement of 1840--A Bishop of New Zealand is appointed--Magistrates are appointed--Abuse of authority by the Police--Address of the Magistrates to the Governor--West of England colonists--Mr. Halswell--Company's roads--Wreck-- Plunder by natives--Party of volunteers--Stagnation in the Government settlements--"Hobson's coming!" --The Harbour-master is discharged--Wish for a Municipal Corporation--Progress of Wellington--Cattle-driving--Mr. Bell, the Scotch farmer--He drives the first herd to Wanganui--Sale of town-allotments at Auckland ....... 470

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