1845 - Wakefield, E. J. Adventure in New Zealand [Vol.II.] - [Front Matter]

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  1845 - Wakefield, E. J. Adventure in New Zealand [Vol.II.] - [Front Matter]
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FROM 1839 TO 1844;



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London: Printed by WILLIAM CLOWES and SONS, Stamford Street.


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Bridle-road--Wreck-- Taupo war-party--The Rev. Octavius Hadfield--Proofs of his worth as a missionary--Wanganui--The process of becoming a store-keeper--The feudal attachment of the natives secured by trading--Pig-hunting--Dogs--E Kuru's ardour for the chase--Troublesome natives--Conduct of Mr. Matthews, a Missionary Catechist--He is justly reproved by E Kuru--Missionary, heathen, and civilized natives-- Waitotara --Inhospitality--Panic of natives on first seeing a horse--Amazement--The country about Wanganui--Climate like the south of Spain--Winds-- Showers--Lawlessness-- Pig-stealing--Den of thieves--Wreck of the Sandfly ..... Page 1


Appointment of Officers in England--Progress--Shops--Rope-makers--Outrages by Rangihaeata-- Tapu on the Beach--Complaint to Police Magistrate--His answer--Neglect of the Cook's Strait settlers by Governor Hobson--No tribunals--Effect on natives--News from Auckland only through Sydney--Absurd nomenclature--Kindness to natives-- Of Government--Of the colonists--E Puni, a gentleman--Answer of the Governor to the Magistrates' address -- The Clendon job--Appointments--Finance-- East Coast of Middle Island--Port Cooper--Public meeting--Native found dead-- Warepori excites the natives -- Alarm--Helplessness--Volunteers--Special constables--Impressions of natives--Disgrace of Mr. Davy--Judge and Attorney-General--Distant legislation -- Secret calumnies -- Defence of his choice by Captain Hobson -- Ill-treatment of Company's settlers ... 22


Arrival of the Governor--Public meeting--Undignified landing-Empty levee--Mr. George Clarke, Chief Protector of the Aborigines--Degradation of chiefs--Mr. Clarke's unfounded charge

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against Colonel Wakefield--Countenanced by the Governor-- Natives consent to leave their Pa--Sudden refusal--Perpetuation of the noxious Pas--Deputation to the Governor--His abject appearance--His own description of it--Mr. Hanson and Mr. Earp--"Government fever" -- The Governor refuses to fulfil the Agreement of 1840--Mr. Clarke's letter--Evil effects of indulgence on natives -- Example -- Misprotection of the Aborigines--Hiko repudiates his bargain--I am requested to become a Magistrate -- "Nelson" Colony -- Negotiations -- The Governor goes to Akaroa--Dinner to Captain Arthur Wakefield and Captain Liardet--Toasts--Dispute about the site of Nelson --Proclamations--Appointments--Things left undone--Stifling of Native Reserves--The colonists and the Governor--Lieutenant Shortland and Mr. Clarke the real Governors--Their private interest at stake ........ 42


Voyage to Wanganui--Too late for selection of lands--Police Magistrate-- Jail--Manufacture of hams and bacon--Departure for Taupo---Ascend the Wanganui--Curious missionary chief-- Rigorous discipline -- Quarrel between natives -- Speech of a youth--Scenery--The Pass in "The Place of Cliffs"--Giddy ascent of cliff--Monument--My attendants--Baggage--Tributary of the Wanganui--Slow progress--Forced march-- Towai, or "Black Birch" -- High table plains -- Rain-- Tonga Riro Mountains -- Legend of Taranaki--View to south-west--Roto Aera, or Lake "Yes, indeed"--Rest--Lake Taupo--Boiling springs--A fine chief--Villages on the lake--Visit to Heuheu --Feast -- Haka, or Dance -- Waitanui Pa -- Well-behaved natives--Proceedings for damages--An Artist in Tatu--The process--Natives play draughts--Local attraction of the compass--Mr. Blackett--Journey from the Bay of Plenty to Taupo --Volcanic district--Farewell to Heuheu--His speech-- Tapu on the summit of a mountain--Mr. Dandeson Coates--Distinction between religious respect and landed rights--Native irony-- Return from Taupo--Skirmish--Sacred sand--Sulphureous river --Effect of sunrise--Rolling ranges--Flax gardens .. 80


Progress of Wanganui--Mr. Wansey's attempt to settle--Consequential airs of the Police Magistrate--Arrival of E Kuru--

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Penalty inflicted for saluting him--Ludicrous proceedings-- Anger of the natives--Guests--Bell's Farm--His management of the natives--Interview with two repudiating chiefs--Their proposal--Journey to Wellington by land--The great chief of Manawatu--Effect of an appeal to native hospitality--Purchase of Manawatu district by Colonel Wakefield--Excellent results of Mr. Hadfield's missionary teaching--Houses for travellers ... 125


Foundation of Nelson--Mr. Thompson--First Court of Quarter Sessions--First trial of a native--Legal position of natives-- Causes for complaint against the Governor--His selection of Magistrates--Vast claims to land--Government Estimates -- Legislative Council--Discontent of the Auckland population-- Maketu, the murderer--Public Meeting--Neglect of the harbour by Government--Mr. Hanson--A colonist who has become an official--The Bishop--Murder of Milne--Villages--Signs of progress--Horticultural Society--Produce--Statistics--Harvest weather--Surveying "Cadets". --Accident of Captain Liardet-- Wretched state of Auckland--Population of Cook's Strait--Inefficient Government Institutions--Second Newspaper--Nelson and New Plymouth--Mr. Earp--County Courts--Government Land-sales--Fleeting news from the capital--The Governor's Speech--Details of the Estimates--Injustice to Cook's Strait-- Public Meeting ....... 144


Voyage to Nelson--Blind Bay--Nelson Haven--Site of Nelson-Gaiety of the landing-place--The infant town--Quail--Climate --Calm weather -- Cattle--Coal and limestone-- Selection of lands--Native Reserves--Colonizing character of the Nelson Gentry--Captain Arthur Wakefield--His name among the natives--Dr. Imlay, of Twofold Bay .... 177


Public Meetings--Outrage committed by Rangihaeata upon settlers--Mr. Murphy, the Police Magistrate--Increasing lawlessness of the natives caused by impunity--Mr. Spain, the Commissioner of Land-Claims--Mr. George Clarke junior the Sub-

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Protector of Aborigines--His qualifications--Petition at Auckland for the recall of Governor Hobson--Wretched condition of Auckland--Introduction of pheasants and bees into Wellington --Mr. Wicksteed appointed to succeed Captain Liardet at New Plymouth--Blood horses from Sydney--Court of Land Claims --Its mischievous action--Changed notions of the natives-- Complicated proceedings--Evidence of E Puni--of E Tako, a Repudiator--Mr. Tod's case -- Dilatory progress--Effects -- Government negligence--Latest dates from Auckland reach Wellington through Sydney--Mildness of Winter--Unceasing vegetation--Natural pasture -- Steam-mill and Brewery--Mechanics' Institute--Mr. Kettle's Exploring Expedition--Gorge of the Manawatu--Plain of the three rivers--Formation of the country--Native legend--Plain of the Ruamahanga--Its nature and extent--Wild hogs--Return by the Hutt Valley--Salubrity of the climate--Central position of Wellington ... 189


The Chief E Ahu--He quells Rangihaeata's noisy arrogance-- He avoids the missionary natives--Journey to Otaki and Ohau -- The chief's son, Wahine iti--Lakes--The Patriarch Watanui --Inland journey--Rangitikei--Obstructions offered to settlers by missionary natives--Mr. Mason, the missionary--Mr. Dawson, the Police Magistrate--Native dispute-- Consequences-- Good faith and honest pride of Rangi Tauwira--The town of "Petre" --E Kuru accompanies me to Wellington -- Inland path-- Bivouac--Race--The Oroua, or Styx--Exaggerated missionary notions--Hypocrisy--Its punishment--The surveying station-- Steam saw-mill -- Reconciliation of two hostile chiefs -- The Patriarch's family--A noble result of Mr. Hadfield's missionary teaching--Rauperaha sends his slaves to obstruct settlers on the Hutt ......... 221


Rauperaha's slaves on the Hutt--Veracity of natives--E Puni's present--Native labour -- Fires--Furniture woods--Boats-- Neglect of Nelson--Stagnation at Auckland--The Bishop arrives--Stifling of the Native Reserves---Their value misrepresented -- Their real value -- Unjust reproaches against the plan--Outrages by natives at New Plymouth--How quelled--

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Proposed arbitration--A Harbour-master appointed -- His fitness for the office--Whales--Doings of the Bishop--Want of a Church--Death of Mr. Young--Mr. Deans migrates to Port Cooper--Calumnies against Colonel Wakefield--How refuted-- Meeting at Auckland--Distressed condition--Remedies proposed --Illness and death of Governor Hobson ... 243


Lieutenant Shortland assumes the Government--His friendly promises--State of Auckland--First Corporation election in the borough of Wellington--List of Aldermen--"Old Jenkins"-- First sitting of Supreme Court--Case of Rangihaeata--Judge Martin's decision -- Horticultural Shows--Weather -- Pitone races--Enlivening scene--First emigration from Great Britain to Auckland--A newspaper printed by a mangle--Picturesque mill--Captain Daniell's farm and road--Beauty of the scenery about Wellington ....... 266


Phormium tenax, or flax--Details of its manufacture--Flax-trade hitherto unsuccessful--The reasons--Flax agitation-- Otaki-- The Rev. Octavius Hadfield--His energy and disinterestedness-- His wise benevolence--Results of commerce on the natives--Inducements to engage in trade with them--Opposition of Rauperaha and Rangihaeata--Good class of emigration--"Puffers," "grumblers," and "good colonists"--Advantages of an exclusive club--Mr. Charles Buller's description of "the gentlemen" colonists--Disgrace of Mr. Murphy--The Police Magistrates governing Cook's Strait--Fire of Wellington--Good results-- Shipping--Death of Warepori--Sketch of the causes of his illness and death--Captain Smith's expedition to the South--Colonel Wakefield's visit to Auckland--Its harbour and the neighbouring country--Its society--Parkhurst boys--Picnics and balls at Wellington--Exports--Dye-bark-- Titoki oil--Mr. Swainson's troubles with Rauperaha's annoying emissaries--His vain appeal to the authorities--Rauperaha's slaves continue to encroach-- Christmas sports at Wellington--Horticultural productions .... 283

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Concluding selection of lands--Murder of a native woman at Cloudy Bay--Disputes with the natives at Tauranga--Lieutenant Shortland proposes to enforce the law--The Attorney-General considers the natives not British subjects--Mr. Clarke supports him--Arrival of Lieutenant Shortland at Wellington--His reception--Speeches about land--Tact of E Puni--Copper ore-- Return of Mr. Petre from his visit to England--Race-horses-- Mr. Cooke drives cattle to New Plymouth--Dicky Barrett and Mr. George Clarke junior--Arbitration--Mr. George Clarke junior promoted--Discussions about compensation for land--A mad native--Windmill--Comet of 1843--Mr. Spain proceeds towards the north--A native murdered by another native in Wellington--The murderer goes unpunished--Interview with Rauperaha--His allies--His irritated and threatening behaviour --Proposed journey--The rata, or flowering myrtle .... 321


Journey to Wanganui-- Wahine iti joins me--His relations object--He asserts his own authority--Mr. Spain, the Land Commissioner, at Petre--Upright conduct of an old chief--Death of Mr. Mason--The Rev. Richard Taylor--Spirited behaviour of E Kuru--Journey towards Taranaki---Bridle-road--Missionary opposition--Luxuriant country--Food for cattle in the forest-- The tutu, a poisonous shrub--Signs of a settlement--Suspension-bridge--Advantages of having no port--The yeomen of New Plymouth--Contentment in a good climate--Security bestowed on Taranaki by the Whites--Flocking of natives to the district-- New claims--Suspension of the Company's operations--Negotiations with Mr. Spain and Mr. Clarke junior--Coast near Cape Egmont --Religious feuds among natives -- Inhospitality -- Changed character--A captive belle--E Kuru's home .... 337


First rumours of the massacre at Wairau--Rauperaha's message-- E Kuru's offer of an armed force--The Police Magistrate's version--Fears of E Ahu for his son --Earthquake--Escort of natives--Kindness of Watanui--Affecting scene at Ohau--

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Rauperaha a missionary--His stratagems--He drives a herd of cattle back--Dispute with other chiefs--Speeches--Rauperaha insults the Queen of England--His kingly bearing--His powerful eloquence--Arrival at Wellington--Evidence relating to the Wairau massacre--Lord Stanley's episode--The truth about Rangihaeata's wife--No Coroner--Alarm at Wellington--Enrolment of volunteers by the authorities--Battle of Manganui in the North--Caused by the Government . ... 361


Arrival of Major Richmond and fifty-three soldiers--The volunteer drilling proclaimed illegal--By inadvertence--Meetings of the local Magistrates--Deputation to reconnoitre--Visits to the Hutt and Porirua--Proceedings of the Magistrates--Petition-- Lord Ripon's remarks on it--Mr. Clarke's Maori Proclamation --Lieutenant Shortland's Proclamation -- Mr. Clarke's Official Report--Heartless population of Auckland--Effects of the Acting Governor's Proclamation--Judge Martin's rule of Court --Honourable conduct of Mr. Fox -- Public remonstrance to the Judge--Mr. Spain's proceedings--Negotiations respecting the arbitration-- Outrage committed by a native--Arrival of H. M. S. North Star--Sir Everard Home's letter to Rauperaha--Taupo Bay at Porirua-- Taiaroa-- Farm near Otako--Disturbances at Nelson--Indifference of the Government officers .... 402


Review of the condition of the natives--Their intercourse with the whalers--Church Mission--Samuel Marsden--His object and plans--His doings in New Zealand--Purchase of a site--Deed of conveyance--Wise benevolence of Marsden--Progress--Increasing influence--Captain Laplace--Failure of Marsden's project, how caused--The independence of New Zealand----How concocted--Details of coincident missionary land-sharking--Progress of labours--Wesleyan Mission--Struggles and perils--Revival-- New Zealand Association opposed by both missionary societies-- Income of the societies--Their expenditure in New Zealand-- Hostility delegated to local missionaries--Results of missionary labours--The Government and the natives--Want of system-- Treaty of Waitangi--Official and literal translations--Disre-

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garded by both parties--Incongruities of Government--Conflicting systems for the good of the natives--Confusion produced in their minds--Results to be dreaded--Hopes for the appointment of an able Governor--Drown colonies and chartered colonies-- Captain Grey on aborigines--Known prejudices of Captain Fitzroy ......... 432


News of the appointment of Governor Fitzroy--Modified agreement between the Company and Lord Stanley--Expedition of H. M. S. North Star--Negotiations for the recovery of a stolen boat--Letter of Rauperaha--Major Richmond at Nelson--Warrant against Rauperaha and Rangihaeata -- Ridiculed by Sir Everard Home--Dismissal of the frigate as unnecessary--Effect of impunity on the natives--Disallowance of Ordinances--Land Claims Bill--Corporation Bill--The Company's offer to build a lighthouse--Obstructed by Government delays--Proceedings of the Wellington Corporation--E Waho rescued by natives from the Police--Letter of Major Richmond--Conduct of Mr. Clarke junior--Rauperaha's son--False rumours at Otaki--Threatening behaviour of Rangihaeata--Conversation with Rauperaha-- His statements--Correspondence---Trial of E Waho--Menacing movements of natives-- The Hutt road -- Haunts of lawless natives ......... 472


Arrival of Governor Fitzroy at Wellington--Auckland officials-- Levee--Discouraging opinions of the Governor--Public rebuke-- Effect--Dispersion of the assembly--Taunts of the natives--Private interview with his Excellency -- Accusations -- Captain Fitzroy's demeanour--Friendship towards the natives--Captain Fitzroy at Nelson--Dismissal of Magistrates--His Excellency's interview with Rauperaha at Waikanae--Sir Everard Home shakes Rauperaha by the hand--Reflections on Captain Fitzroy's decision--Some account of Captain Arthur Wakefield--Major Richmond appointed Superintendent--Captain Fitzroy and the land-claims--Reasons for leaving the colony--Prospects of the colonists--Of the natives--The only hope--Return to Europe.

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