1867 - Williams, William. Christianity among the New Zealanders - CHAPTER XIX.

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  1867 - Williams, William. Christianity among the New Zealanders - CHAPTER XIX.
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WE have seen that when Christian Missionaries began their labours among the New Zealanders, they were in a state of the wildest barbarism. The blessing of God had accompanied the effort made, until nearly all the inhabitants had made profession of Christianity. In the meantime the aspect of the country was changed. The casual intercourse with whaling vessels which resorted to the harbours for supplies in early days, was followed by an extensive trade with New South Wales for flax, the staple commodity of the country; but in the year 1840 the islands became a dependency of the British crown, and the country was beginning to be largely occupied by settlers. This altered state of things brought with it many advantages, and the natives gladly welcomed the change. But there were many circumstances connected with it which tended to draw off their minds from the simplicity of their first profession. They

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acknowledged that religion gave them much benefit, and that it led the way to the acquisition of those comforts which had improved their present condition, but their intercourse with civilized man brought with it complications which could not be guarded against. The Maori had possessed the entire control of his actions, and he was in the habit of settling all differences after a manner of his own. But now there was another race, whose ways were different, beginning to settle down among them, and misunderstandings often arose, which sometimes it was not easy to remove. If a case occurred in a town, or where the English population was predominant, it was settled according to the customs of the stronger party, and if dissatisfaction was felt it was not allowed to show itself; but it was not so in a Maori district: there the natives felt their strength, and took the law into their own hands. The reasoning adopted was, the white man has his own way in the towns, but here we will settle our own affairs.

There was at the same time another influence going on, the effects of which were not apparent. Large quantities of land had been sold in many parts of the country; but most of it was waste land, and amounted altogether to but a small portion of what the natives could dispose of without doing injury to themselves. As the settlers became more numerous, the demand for land increased also, and in their desire to meet the wishes of a clamorous public, the agents of the government often displayed an intemperate eagerness

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to make purchases. Contracts were sometimes made with a few only of the proprietors, which gave great dissatisfaction to the tribe; and as these cases were not unfrequent, there grew up a feeling of jealousy in the minds of the people, lest if this course were continued the whole country might soon be alienated, and nothing left for themselves. There were many instances in which violent feuds had sprung up either about disputed boundaries, or because purchases had been made from those who were declared to have only a limited proprietorship in the soil. The chief cases which had occurred were at Manukau, at Taranaki, and in the province of Napier. The quarrels were of a serious character, and many lives were lost, and these evils led to a determination not to part with any more land, and this was the beginning of the Land League. Renata Tamakiterangi, of Napier, in a letter to the Superintendent of that province, writes: --"All our troubles have arisen from the improper manner of conducting land purchases, and on this account the sale of land was stopped. Whenever the government shall have laid down some equitable system of land purchase, and when calm is again restored, the tribes who wish to sell will dispose of their land under a properly regulated system." There was much interchange of ideas among the tribes on this subject, and the determination to keep the land in their own hands gathered strength.

The relations between the Maori race and the government have been further complicated by the

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native Runanga, which was for a time an exceedingly good arrangement. Upon the introduction of Christianity it was fixed upon as a substitute for the barbarous mode of settling by brute force those differences which must always arise in every community. The Runanga was a quiet assembly of the tribe, and the avowed course of proceeding was to settle disputes by peaceable arbitration, and in case of offences to levy a fine according to a prescribed rule. This was a great improvement upon the old system. One case will serve as an illustration. A young chief of some rank at Opotiki had committed some misdemeanour, which led the Runanga to impose upon him the fine of a horse. He set them at defiance, saying that he was a chief, and he would have no more to do with the Runanga. He would be "puta ki waho," walk outside their jurisdiction. "You declare yourself to be no longer under the Runanga?" said the authorities; "Yes, I do." "Then we will deal with you according to our old custom." They then took from him two or three horses, a canoe, and all the property he possessed. This system of Runanga prevailed throughout the country, and sometimes matters were arranged fairly, but often it was not so. They claimed also the right of jurisdiction over the scattered settlers who were living among them. Blame has often been cast upon the government for not having taken the initiative in these affairs, but those who are disposed to censure show their ignorance of the real state of the country. An English-

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man has no other idea from his childhood than that the law is paramount. He knows that it is vain to make resistance; he therefore quietly does what is required of him. It is not so with a native offender living among his own people, with other tribes around him ready to support him in the course he means to pursue. Were a Queen's officer to show himself there unaccompanied by force, he would be told to go back to the place from whence he came. The first unhappy attempt at Wairau, in the year 1841, when Captain Wakefield and many others lost their lives, was a lesson to show that the undertaking was one of difficulty.

There was a similar case at Tauranga in 1842. A feud had broken out between the tribe Ngatiawa, and Te Arawa the tribe of Maketu. The Ngatiawa considered themselves the aggrieved party, and asked the government to interfere. Mr. Willoughby Shortland, the acting governor, went to Tauranga, accompanied by a force of 200 soldiers, who were encamped at Maunganui. It was then found to be impracticable to use any coercion against the Maketu natives, and when Pekama Tohi, their chief, came to Mr. Shortland to inquire into their object, this prudent answer was given: "We are here to prevent you from attacking Tauranga, and to prevent Tauranga from attacking you."

At Manukau, in the year 1845, a serious quarrel broke out, and application was made by one party for the interference of the government. The manner in

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which the difficulty was disposed of showed that it would be extremely inconvenient to the government to do anything. They wrote to the Rev. R. Maunsell to say that they were prevented by the disturbances in the Bay of Islands from taking any step at Waikato, and that as his influence with the tribes had been exercised heretofore with such good effect, they must depend upon him to use his best endeavours to bring about a reconciliation.

The working of the Runanga continued, but it was often very partial in its decisions, and the better disposed among the natives saw the superiority of the English mode, and asked to have magistrates located among them, but the majority of the people were opposed to this course. A resident magistrate was appointed to Turanga on the arrival of Governor Brown, in consequence of a wish expressed by a few chiefs that the government would take some steps to stop the importation of spirits into Poverty Bay. But the magistrate's arrival excited much uneasiness. The system was tried with great caution there and in many other places, but with the same result; the aggrieved parties were always ready to prefer their complaints in the hope of obtaining redress, but the aggressors were unwilling to submit to a legal decision, and there was no power to compel them to do so. This was particularly the case if an Englishman had suffered wrong from a native. What could the government do? It is not correct therefore to say, "The government took no trouble to help them to

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have useful English laws where the Maoris live." 1 In the meantime the idea was instilled into the native mind, that they would do well to unite themselves under one head. A story is related that Te Heuheu, the chief of Taupo, was receiving hospitality in Auckland in the year 1857; --that a candle was placed upon the table, when the following dialogue ensued: --

"What is the use of this candle?"

"To give light."

"What is it which causes the light?"

"It is the fat."

"Will the fat give light by itself?"

"No; it requires a wick in the middle of it."

"Yes, and this shows you what you require; if you are gathered round a king, you will become a great people, and your light will extend far and wide." This suggestion was at once acted upon.

"Let us have a king to be at the head of our Runanga, and let his authority be established throughout the country."

This was the origin of the king movement, and soon the watchword of the party was, "He puru toto, he pupuri whenua:" "Stop the effusion of blood, and keep possession of the land." The Waikato chief Potatau was fixed, upon, though much against his will, to hold the regal office, but being a very old man he was passive under the name of the dignity,

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and left all action to others. Every exertion was used by the promoters of the scheme to extend their influence through the country, and the most specious arguments were resorted to in order to gain adherents. In April, 1859, there was a large meeting at Pawhakairo, near Napier, at which Tamihana Te Waharoa was present with seventy of his followers from Waikato. The Napier chiefs were strongly recommended to take back into their own hands all the land which they had leased to the sheep farmers, and for which they were receiving a large rental. But they rejected this advice, saying that they were quite satisfied with the arrangement they had made with the settlers. This was before the first outbreak at Taranaki, and it hence appears that the promoters of the movement were making strenuous efforts to strengthen their cause.

Upon the withdrawal of the troops from Taranaki during the interval which occurred after the return of Sir George Grey to the country, a meeting was held by the natives at Peria, in Waikato, for the discussion of the governor's proposals in the year 1862, the result of which was that the majority of the people became more determined than before to follow their own course. A Waiapu native, Hoera Tamatatai, was present at the meeting, and returning home with a king's flag, became a zealous advocate of the cause, and as he travelled along the Bay of Plenty he proclaimed, that the recommendation of the Maori king was, that every white man should be sent away from

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the native districts, and that not even the missionaries should be allowed to remain. It appears then that there was a strong party at Waikato, who for the sake of preserving their nationality and the exclusive control over their lands and persons, were willing to forfeit all the advantages to be derived from commercial intercourse, and even to forego their religious instruction. The missionaries had always advised them to receive without hesitation that which appeared to be the will of God, and was clearly for their benefit, a union with the English under the common government of the Queen; many therefore were ready to look with suspicion upon their teachers, and to say that they had only been sent before to prepare the way for the government. After the so-called peace had been concluded at Taranaki in 1861, the road to Whanganui continued to be stopped, and a board of tolls was put up demanding the sum of five pounds from all settlers who should travel that way, but fifty pounds from any minister of religion, whether native or English.

Meanwhile the party in Waikato, bent upon carrying out their extreme views against the English, made every preparation for combined action. In 1862 a deputation from the Thames was sent to Poverty Bay to summon the natives to join them in a general rising, stating that Waikato would very shortly become the scene of conflict. The invitation was not responded to, and in April, 1863, a further attempt was made at a large meeting held at Turanga, on

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occasion of the opening of a church, when the Waikato deputation were much disconcerted by the rejection of their proposal that all should join the king movement.

When hostilities began in Waikato, Tamihana sent to the natives of the East Coast, to desire that they would remain quiet, and leave him to settle his own quarrel with the government. He had been previously joined by a party from Waiapu, about fifty-five in number; but after the battle at Rangiriri he wrote a letter to Opotiki, to be passed on to all the tribes to the Eastward, requesting them to rise up in a body. Up to this time the people of Opotiki had declared their determination to take no part in the war, and had sent a communication to the government to that effect. But they at once responded to Tamihana's appeal, and it was not long before the most unsettled of the natives hastened to the scene of conflict. As the troops were advancing into the heart of Waikato, messengers were sent along the coast in quick succession, and every device was resorted to, in order to obtain the support of those who had remained behind. Each conflict was reported to be a most unheard of victory gained by the natives, and those who had no wish to engage in the war were told that there would be no share for them in the spoils, unless they went at once to join their comrades. While the troops were gradually working their way through upper Waikato, it was said they had been driven back to Auckland, and that the town itself

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would be an easy conquest. The consequence was that all their worst passions were roused, and a thirst for plunder and blood was stirred up, such as it had been in olden times. They tried to persuade themselves that their cause was just, and that to fight was the only cause by which they could save themselves from being crushed by the oppression of the white man. They began by looking to God as their defence, but when reverses came upon them, there were many who threw up their religion, saying, that as God had not given them victory, they would worship Him no longer.

The Tauranga natives had been beaten at Te Ranga, and had made their submission to the governor. Waikato was now in the hands of the troops, but the tribes of that district had fallen back into the interior. In the meantime Satan was not wanting in expedients. Having possession of the hearts of his votaries, he kept them back from accepting terms of reconciliation, lest they should slip away from his dominion. His next device was to frame the Hauhau or Paimarie superstition, with the promise of complete success to those who should follow it.

A Taranaki chief, Horopapera Te Ua, having shown strong symptoms of insanity, his people considered that it was dangerous for him to be at large, and bound him with ropes. In a little time he contrived to gain his liberty. He was then secured with a chain, which was securely padlocked, but he broke the chain asunder, and was again free. "The angel

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Gabriel," he said, "had appeared to him to give him his release." The next achievement of Te Ua was still more marvellous. It is related that, in a fit of frenzy, he severed his child's leg with an axe; but when the people gathered around to pour forth their lamentations, they found the child playing before the door, with only a scar visible, showing where the amputation had taken place. From this time Te Ua was no longer regarded as a maniac, but as a great prophet, one who was raised up for their deliverance. He then related to his people a remarkable dream, which was interpreted to mean that victory was near at hand. Soon after a party of soldiers, under Captain Lloyd, being out on a reconnaisance, their retreat was cut off by the natives, and some of the number, including that officer, fell into their hands. The report was at once circulated that this success had been achieved under the protection of the angel Gabriel; that the natives, only thirty in number, had been attacked by a large body of soldiers, and that without fighting, but only by the use of Horopapera's magic wand, the soldiers all fell before them. Horopapera then sent a letter to Tamihana Te Waharoa, and to the New Zealand chiefs generally, instructing them to sheathe the sword of war, "that the Lord of Hosts has given to the natives the sword of Sampson and of Gideon, the sword by which the Philistines and the Midianites were overpowered. This is Gabriel the archangel. He has come down like a mighty flood upon his people, and upon the ruler

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who is anointed to be over them. He commands you to stay the four winds of heaven, and that all the people shall take upon them the solemn oath (Kia tomo katoa tatou ki ana pooti). 2 If you obey this command your God will come down upon this land. It is because he loves his people, and is about to restore you to your rock, which is Jehovah." Here was a recognition of the Divine Ruler, but there was a strange admixture of fanaticism, and, in order to secure the adhesion of the people, it was necessary to give them a new system. Their case bore some resemblance to that of Israel of old, when, the ten tribes having raised the standard of rebellion, Jeroboam made the golden calves for the people to worship, lest by going up to Jerusalem they should return to their allegiance. The Christian religion had taught them quiet submission to the powers that be, and under the instruction of the missionaries they had been accustomed to pray for the Queen, and to acknowledge her authority. The Scriptures therefore were to be laid aside, together with all the books they had received from the missionaries. They were directed to return to their native customs, including the tapu and polygamy, and a new form of worship was prepared, which seems to have been borrowed in part from the Romish Missal, one portion being headed, "A song of Mary for the people who

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are standing destitute on the island, which is divided into two;" but it is worded in a jargon which the natives say they do not understand. 3 It is written partly in English, as an untaught Maori would pronounce the English words, with a sprinkle of Latin also. One line will be sufficient as a specimen: --

Koti te pata mai merire.
God the father miserere mei.
At the same time the form is repeated with an intensity of earnestness, which is calculated to work powerfully on the feelings. When the worship of these fanatics was practised at Poverty Bay it was followed by a most bitter lamentation, unlike anything ever witnessed before. It was a mourning on account of those who had been slain in the war with the English, and for the land which had been taken from them in Waikato. It was commenced by the Taranaki natives, but the effect was overpowering upon the bystanders, who joined in by degrees until there were very few who did not unite in the chorus. There was a chord touched which, vibrated in the native breast. It was the "arohi ki te iwi," amor patrice, and they could not resist it. In their harangues, the evils of their condition were magnified to the utmost, and the sympathies of the people were enlisted to such an extreme degree that they seemed to be hurried along as by a mighty torrent.

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The Hauhau emissaries, who were sent through the country in the early part of the year 1865, left Taranaki in two bodies. The one was to pass by Whanganui and Taupo, and thence to Whakatane, Opotiki, and East Cape, after which they were to proceed to Poverty Bay, by way of the coast. The other party was to go through the centre of the island by Ruatahuna and Wairoa, and both were to meet at Poverty Bay. The instructions given by Te Ua were, that they should travel peaceably, carrying with them the human heads, which they were to deliver to Hirini Te Kani, a Poverty Bay chief. The object of this expedition was not fighting, but to obtain the adhesion of all the tribes through which they passed. It appears however that on the arrival of the first party at Pipiriki, on the Whanganui river, their purpose was changed, and they proceeded thence with the intention of murdering any missionaries who might come in their way. This purpose was announced at Whakatane, but there were no means of warning those who might be exposed to danger. On their arrival at Opotiki they found the tribe already in a state of extreme excitement. They had been induced to rise at the call of Tamihana twelve months before, and on their way to join that chief they received a check at Matata from the Arawa tribe, and lost several of their people, among whom was Aporotanga, a leading chief, who had been taken prisoner, and was afterwards shot by the wife of Tohi, the Arawa chief, who had fallen in the

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battle. Returning home they were reduced to great hardships from the scarcity of food, which had all been consumed in fitting out their unsuccessful expedition. Upon this there followed a virulent attack of low fever, which carried off about a fourth-part of the population. Smarting under their losses they were still endeavouring to obtain the help of their neighbours to raise another force for an attack upon the Arawa. The ravages of the fever had not yet ceased when the Hauhau fanatics came upon them. They were at once assured that all they wished for was within reach. The boasted success of the Hauhaus on the western coast, which had never yet had any existence, was related to them, and they were told, that if they confided with implicit faith in the directions of the new prophets, they might march without fear to Maketu against the Arawa, and thence to Tauranga and to Auckland, for that no power could withstand them. These declarations were supplemented by the exercise of a mesmeric influence. They erected a pole, upon which the Paimarire flags were hoisted, and the whole body of the people, men, women, and children, were made to go round it for a length of time, until they were brought into a state of giddiness, when they were easily operated upon by the Tiu. The English settlers who were living there all agree in describing their condition as one of raving madness. At this unhappy juncture the Rev. Messrs. Volkner and Grace arrived in a small schooner, the former having

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with him a supply of medicine and nourishing food for the sick. They crossed the bar, and when they were in the river they were entirely within the power of the fanatics. The Taranaki Hauhaus gloated on their prey, and the Opotiki natives were ready to pay implicit obedience to their new teachers. The miscreant Kereopa declared that it was the will of the god, speaking by the human head, that Mr. Volkner's life should be taken, and all the Opotiki chiefs in succession gave their consent to the barbarous murder which followed.

When we look at all the circumstances, it is difficult to account for this tragedy. Mr. Volkner had been living for more than three years among the Whakatohea tribe, and he had earned for himself very much respect by the uniform kindness of his manner, by his anxiety to promote their welfare in every way, not merely by his religious instructions, but by looking after their temporal interests, and particularly by his unremitting attention to the sick. They seemed to regard him as a friend who really had their welfare at heart. Mr. Volkner wrote to me on the 22d of January, a few days after visiting Opotiki, "I found that during my absence the natives had most carefully abstained from touching any property belonging to me, and when I made my appearance again among them, they gave me a most hearty welcome." It was this conduct of the natives towards him which put him off his guard, when he was warned that there might be danger in going back

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to Opotiki. The murder was an act of savage madness, hurried on at the instigation of the evil one, and though there were a few among the Opotiki natives who grieved at the time of the crisis, they were afraid to open their lips. They saw the body of the people powerless in the hands of the fanatics, they were themselves unconsciously imbibing the same spirit of fanaticism. They did not dare to speak, lest they might be made to suffer for their interference. But the majority were hurried along by the torrent, and had brought themselves to the belief that what they were doing was right. They inflicted a most cruel death upon one who in every way was their kindest earthly benefactor. His own immediate friends, who knew his earnest desire to promote the welfare of the people of his charge, were amazed at the tidings of the deed, and the whole Christian world was aroused to the recollection that such deaths were frequent in olden times; and yet the martyrdoms of former days do not bear a parallel to this, because they were the work of men who never professed the religion of those they sought to destroy. Following the example of that Saviour whom he had endeavoured to serve, Volkner prayed for his murderers that they might he forgiven, for indeed they knew not what they did. And quickly he passed away to join the multitude of those who "came out of great tribulation, and have washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb."

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The rapid spread of this new superstition altogether disappointed the expectations of those who were best acquainted with native character, but still it was not to be regarded so much as a religious movement; it was rather an expedient, which had been adopted for the purpose of recovering their national independence, and in order, as they supposed, to gain this end, multitudes formally renounced the Christian faith. How truly are the words of the Apostle fulfilled in them: "Even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind to do those things which are not convenient." Many were hurried onward to their own destruction.

We have seen that the occupation of the country as an English colony excited the jealous feelings of the natives. The Land League and the king movement gradually grew out of this jealousy, and the war which followed shook the native church to its foundation. Many have not endured the sifting to which they have been subjected. But in all this we only see another instance of what has been the experience of the Church in all ages. Whenever persons take up a religious profession under the influence of excitement, they will fall back as soon as that excitement ceases. In our own day we have had revivals in America and in England, and there seemed to be a wonderful reformation for a little while, and then the effect suddenly disappeared. Plants of exotic growth will not endure the rude

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blasts of the common world. If Christianity be sound in character, if the fabric of our faith is built upon a true foundation, the floods may come, and the winds may blow, but it will not fall, because it is founded upon a rock.

Where, then, is the Christianity of the native Church? What are the results of all the labour that has been bestowed? Where is the field of promise that has been so much talked of? There are many who think it will be difficult to answer these inquiries; but there might be the same difficulty if we were to institute a close examination into the condition of many favoured districts in England. Oftentimes there would be all the outward appearance of religion, and even a zeal for many things that are good, but a fearful absence of that deeper principle which leads the Christian to delight in the knowledge of Christ as the one thing needful. Our Saviour tells us of the kingdom of God, "Ye cannot say, Lo, it is here, or, Lo, it is there," because "the kingdom of God is within you." We see a something which is external: it promises fair, and we think surely it is there; but, after all, we may be mistaken. Where there is the greatest sincerity in religion it will most shrink from observation. When we see the fruit upon the tree, we then believe it to be a reality; but its quality has yet to be tested. If in those who profess to be Christians there is that consistency of life which Christianity requires, we are then bound

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to believe that it is sincere. In the native Church, that sincerity is to be met with, just as it is in other parts of the world. During the period of fifty years in which the gospel has been proclaimed to the New Zealanders, who can say how many have received it in sincerity? Of this we are certain, that the multitude is large of those who, after having afforded during life a sufficient reason for believing that they were true converts, have in their last moments given a clear testimony that they died in the Christian's hope.

While we lament over the sad convulsions by which the Maori Church has been torn asunder, we must bear in mind that the missionaries from whom the New Zealanders received the knowledge of Christianity, came to them from that nation with which they have since been engaged in an unhappy conflict. This fact has been industriously put forward by some whose interest it was to withstand the progress of the Gospel. Then, too, the failure of their attempts to drive back their enemies, followed by the introduction of the Paimarire superstition, has tended to test their professions to the utmost. These trials have come upon them, like a flood of waters, with overwhelming force; but it will be found that there are many sincere Christians scattered over the country at the present time, although they may not come under general notice. When the prophet Elijah had fled into the wilderness, through fear of the vengeance

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of Jezebel, he declared before God that the prophets of the Lord had been all slain, and that he only was left. But God said to him, "Yet have I left me seven thousand in Israel, all the knees which have not bowed unto Baal."

Great numbers have fallen away; but it is a cheering fact that there are twelve native clergymen, supported by the contributions of their flocks, amounting to upwards of three thousand pounds, who are labouring with diligence and zeal to lead their countrymen in the right path. The present period is the sifting time of the Church, a sifting which will be for its benefit.

The Gospel was to be preached in all the world for a witness unto all nations. It was brought to New Zealand, and has been accepted by great numbers. But because there are many also who reject it, -- because many have, apparently, received it gladly, and after that have renounced it, --this is no sign of failure in the object first proposed by those who undertook to bring the offer of Christianity before them. There is no falling short in the beneficent purposes of God in this. We only witness here what is seen in every other part of the Christian Church. The external fabric is large and beautiful, and within there is room for all. Many do not enter; and why? because they will not. Of those who do, there is still a large proportion who are satisfied with outward conformity, but who fall short of those higher spiritual qualities which are required in the Gospel.

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There is yet a mighty change to be effected in the whole Christian world before it will have reached that condition which is promised. The wickedness which now prevails on the earth has to be removed from it; wars are to be made to cease, swords are to be beaten into ploughshares, and spears into pruning-hooks, and the nations shall learn war no more. Never was there a period when the violent passions of men were aroused to more deadly strife; yet the course of the world is hastening on, and though many ages have rolled away since the purposes of God were revealed to Nebuchadnezzar in Babylon, they will soon receive their accomplishment. Much has been fulfilled, and what yet remains must also be accomplished. "Thou sawest till that a stone was cut out without hands, which smote the image upon his feet, that were of iron and clay, and break them to pieces. Then was the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver, and the gold broken in pieces together, and became like the chaff of the summer threshing-floor, and the wind carried them away, that no place was found for them; and the stone that smote the image became a great mountain, and filled the whole earth." It is added: "And in the days of these kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom which shall never be destroyed; and the kingdom shall not be left to other people, but it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand for ever." That kingdom will have within it a countless multitude from all people and nations and kindreds

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and languages; and there, too, will be found the New Zealand Church, composed of a goodly company of those who once were savages, but who, having been called out of darkness into the marvellous light of the Gospel, will be made partakers of the heavenly inheritance.

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1   See Address to the Maoris, by the Aborigines Protection Society.
2   Pooti is the term used for the ceremony which is performed around the pole when the people are brought under a mesmeric influence.
3   At Poverty Bay the question was put to Watene, a Tiu, or Priest from Waikato; "Do you understand the words you are using?" "No I do not, but I suppose Horopapera does."

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