1907 - Wilson, J. A. The Story of Te Waharoa...Sketches of Ancient Maori Life and History - Sketches of Ancient Maori Life and History - NGAETERANGI, OF TAURANGA.

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  1907 - Wilson, J. A. The Story of Te Waharoa...Sketches of Ancient Maori Life and History - Sketches of Ancient Maori Life and History - NGAETERANGI, OF TAURANGA.
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It was many years ago, before our utilitarian grass paddocks and barbed-wire fences had changed the face of the country, that I first saw the picturesque ruins of old Tawhitirahi pa at Opotiki. Standing on a high cliff that overhangs the stream of Kukumoa they were embowered with trees and flowering plants that festooned from them to the stream below. The prospect from the pa was delightful; on the one hand as far as the eye could reach the ocean and its coast lines were visible; on the other the valley of Opotiki was everywhere in view. The site, too, was as convenient as it was pleasant. Fishing in salt water and fresh, bird snaring and eel catching, were near to hand, while fern root in abundance of finest quality, and Tupakihi wine in the season were easily obtained. It was here some 350 years ago that a happy tribe lived of Maui-Maoris of Awa descent; 1 when they received a friendly visit from the chief of the powerful neighbouring tribe of Ngatiha, of the same descent (afterwards called Ngatipukenga), who lived at Waiaua and Omarumutu. The visitor greatly admired a tame tui, belonging to his host Kahukino, that sang

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and was otherwise well educated. In that age birds were taught to bewitch people, and to karakia (say prayers) for supplies of various kinds of food. When the visitor was about to return home, he asked that the bird might be given to him, but Kahukino could not make up his mind to part with it. The visitor concealed his rage and went away. It was not long after this that Tawhitirahi pa was surprised one night by a war party with the late visitor at its head. The pa was taken, some of its chiefs and people were slain; many, however, escaped and fled to the forest-clad mountains of the interior, where they wandered for a time, but could not remain, as they were trespassing on the hunting grounds of other tribes. Thus they passed through Motu country, and crossing its eastern watershed, descended into the valley of the Waikohu, where they were found by the Takitumu natives of Turanganui (Poverty Bay), and would have been slain had not Waho o te Rangi interposed. He was the chief of Ngaeterangihokaia, a hapu of Te Aetanga Hauiti, of Takitumu descent, who lived at Uawa (Tologa Bay).

Waho o te Rangi, like Tuterangiwhiu at Raukumara, saved the refugees, and made slaves of them. They were located on Te Whakaroa Mountain, inland of Waimata, and made to catch birds and carry them to him at Uawa.

At this time the people who laboured in this unhappy plight were known by the name of Te Rangihouhiri, being so called after their

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chief, who was the son of Kahukino, of Tawhitirahi. Kahukino was now an old man, and had ceased to take an active part in administering public affairs. Tutenaehe, the son of Rangihouhiri, grew up in this house of bondage.

In process of time Waho o te Rangi grew old and approached his end. The aged chief believed that there would be no one in the tribe when he was gone who would be capable of retaining possession of the slaves. He felt sure that another tribe by no means friendly to him would come and remove the slaves, thereby strengthening themselves and weakening his (Waho's) tribe. It was bad enough to be weakened, but worse that at the same time the other side should be strengthened. He chose the lesser evil, and determined to kill his slaves.

It happened by some means that the slaves learned the fate that was in store for them, and as even the worm will turn, so this poor people turned at bay, resolved to sell their lives dearly. Although their slaves had taken alarm, and could not be surprised, the masters thought little of the task before them. Judge, then, their astonishment when their heedless onslaught was met by an organised band of skilled warriors, who killed them instead, and drove them back the way they had come. The Rangihouhiri had broken their bonds and never served again. They decided now to leave that part of the country, and seek elsewhere for a place where they might make a home for themselves, and marched towards the sea at Whangara, near which, on the banks of the Pakarae,

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they were attacked by the combined forces of Te Aetanga Hauiti, the tribe of which their late masters were a section, whom they defeated a second time in a pitched battle, and remained masters of the field. Te Aetanga Hauiti now found that they must make terms. They had altogether mistaken the men whom they had been accustomed to despise, whose quality man for man was superior to their own, whose prestige before the misfortune at Opotiki had been equal to their own, and whose spirit, disciplined and elevated by adversity and self-sacrifice was unconquerable. They proposed that fighting should cease, and that Te Rangihouhiri should leave the district, going by canoes, which were to be prepared by both parties, and Te Rangihouhiri were to have time and opportunity to collect supplies of food for the journey. These proposals were accepted, they suited the Rangihouhiri perfectly, and both sides observed them faithfully. In due time the Rangihouhiri set sail, and steering north, arrived in the Bay of Plenty, where they landed at a place called Hakuranui, and lived there.

Now, accounts conflict as to this locality. I will mention them, not because the site of that place affects our story, but just to illustrate practically how tradition, like history, varies sometimes in its facts. There are two Hakuranui pas at the Bay of Plenty, one south of Raukokore, the other at Torere. Ngaitai, of Torere, say Te Rangihouhiri never lived at their place, while the people of Raukokore say

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Te Rangihouhiri did live for a time at Hakuranui, that is upon their land. These statements one would think, should be conclusive, but they are not, for the descendants of the Rangihouhiri aver that the Hakuranui in question is at Torere, and the Arawa who, as we shall presently see have a voice in the matter, support the Rangihouhiri version.

However, no matter where it was, the location was not comfortable. The people of the district disapproved of their intrusion and harassed them; they had to keep close, for stragglers did not return, and it was almost impossible to cultivate, as the following instance showed:-- Two men of Te Rangihouhiri, Awatope and Tukoko, went out into a field to plant gourd seed. Awatope proposed to sow broadcast and get away for fear of the people of the place. Tukoko objected to such a slovenly method, and set to work to dibble his seed in properly. Awatope quickly sowed his broadcast and made off. His companion was busily engaged dibbling in, when he was suddenly caught and killed. It is true they made reprisals, but the place was not worth fighting for, and therefore they went away. Passing Opotiki and their old pa at Tawhitirahi, they came to Whakatane, and built a pa for themselves on the spur of the hill that approaches the river next above Wainuitewhara. Here, on the strength of their military reputation, they lived undisturbed for a time. There was, however, sufficient uneasiness and uncertainty on all sides to make the chiefs of

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the Rangihouhiri think seriously of taking the initiative by a coup de main upon the Ngatiawa stronghold of Papaka (which position is immediately above the town of Whakatane). To this end Tamapahore, a leader of theirs, was one night creeping about under the fortifications of Papaka looking out for a point of attack, when a woman came out of the pa on to the defences above him. She did not see him, but he saw her, and on the impulse of the moment, he gave her a poke with the point of his taiaha. She raised an outcry, but Tamapahore escaped; the incident, however betrayed the sinister designs of Te Rangihouhiri tribe. Moreover, the woman was the chief's daughter, and the insult was considered great by her tribe. 2 All the Rangihouhiri knew at once that they must move on from Whakatane, and said so among themselves.

Then Tamapahore stood up and addressed them, saying: "I have acted foolishly, and we must all leave this place in consequence, for all their hapus are roused, but we will not go meanly away; we will deliver a battle first and then go." The feelings of the people approved this sentiment, but Ngatiawa would have none of it, they were not going to fight for nothing. If Te Rangihouhiri stayed they would be wiped out; if they went at once they would be allowed to depart in peace. So the tribe of Te Rangihouhiri left Whakatane,

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and went to Te Awa o te Atua, where they were not wanted.

This friendless tribe had now wandered over the country 200 miles seeking a resting place, and no resting place could be found, for the land everywhere was occupied, or claimed by someone. At that time Te Awa o te Atua was held by a section of Ngatiawa tribe, who not long before that had expelled the Tini o Taunu from that district. They did not intend that Te Rangihouhiri should remain with them too long, and by and by as the visitors manifested no intention of moving on, an intimation to go, too rude and realistic to be misapprehended, was given to them.

Then Rangihouhiri, the chief of the tribe of that name, sent Tamapahore on a friendly visit to Tatahau, the chief of Tapuika, at Maketu, and charged him to spy the land there. Tamapahore went with a suitable retinue, and was hospitably received by Ongakohua, another chief of Tapuika. When he returned, Tamapahore reported that the place was most desirable in every respect. The aspect was pleasant, the land good, the cultivations beautiful, and fish of all kinds was abundant in the sea and rivers of Waihi and Kaituna, but the place was populous, and Tatahau was a great chief, and closely connected with the powerful Waitaha a Hei tribe. However, the tempting character of the prize outweighed in Rangihouhiri's opinion all consideration of difficulty, and war with Tatahau was determined

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on, but a pretext was required, and Rangihouhiri was too punctilious to misbehave or act incorrectly in the matter. Therefore, he applied to Tuwewea, the chief of Ngatiawa, at Te Awa o te Atua, who readily furnished the information required. Oddly enough, the casus belli took its rise out of the killing of their own man Tukoko, who, it will be remembered, had dibbled his seed instead of sowing broadcast, and that point being settled satisfactorily, preparation was made for the campaign, before entering on which I have a few general remarks to make.

We have seen that the Rangihouhiri tribe were Awa of Toi, that the tribe of Whakatane were Awa of Hawaiki, and that these two Awa tribes became connected by marriage and other causes, due to amiable propinquity, also by a portion of the latter (Te Kareke) being driven by civil war into the former and being absorbed by them. We may suppose that the force of these affinities was greater when proximate; operating as it were upon an inverse ratio to the square of their distance, and extended over a considerable area, including Tawhitirahi; and when in time the intervening connection consolidated, it broke up into tribes and hapus of aboriginal or immigrant appellation, according to the degree of relationship of each to one or other of the centres of settlement, the former being known as the Whakatohea hapus, the latter as Ngatiawa; but in the cases of Te Rangihouhiri of Tawhitirahi and Ngatirawharo

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of Ohiwa (both intimately connected together), the Awa of Toi have called themselves Ngatiawa, for they are related to Ngatiawa, and the more popular name has been adhered to by them.

It was in the summer that the Rangihouhiri tribe set out from Te Awa o te Atua and marched towards Maketu. The main body camped at Pukehina under Rangihouhiri the chief, while a strong vanguard took up a position at the ford at Waihi, giving out that they were a fishing party. Presently ten men crossed Waihi, and searching among the plantations on the hill above Maketu found a woman at work by herself collecting caterpillars off her kumara plants. She was Punoho, Tatahau's daughter. Her they outraged. The last of the party to approach was Werapinaki, a cripple. Filled with rage she derided his appearance, saying "he would be a god if it were night time, in the day he is a hideous spectre," when, with a blow of his weapon he killed her, the body was thrown into a kumara pit where it could not be found. When Punoho was missed, her tribe sought everywhere in vain, not a trace of her was seen. They suspected the Rangihouhiri of foul play, and sent a neutral woman to enquire. The answer the messenger received was "Yes, she was killed by Werapinaki." Then a party of Tapuika stealthily crossed Waihi at night and slew Werapinaki, who was a chief, as he slept apart under an awning, the day being hot, and next day the war began. The Rangihouhiri took the initiative by

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assaulting and carrying Tatahau's great pa at Pukemaire (where the old European redoubt stands). Tatahau and many of his tribe were killed, the rest and two of his sons escaping to Rangiuru. All the smaller pas followed the fate of Pukemaire. In this war the Rangihouhiri forces were materially strengthened by a section of their tribe that came from the Uriwera country, where it had taken refuge after the fall of Tawhitirahi.

Then the Ngaoho (Arawa) commenced a series of campaigns for the recovery of their lost territory and prestige. The first was by Waitaha a Hei, who came from East Tauranga; Tatahau's mother was of their tribe, and fought a battle, Te Kakaho, at Maketu ford and retired, for the weight of the Rangihouhiri arms was greater than they had expected. To mend this unsatisfactory state of affairs Tapuika strengthened themselves by matrimonial alliances with Ngatimaru at the Thames, and with the people at Maungakawa, from whom they got assistance in the next campaign. In the same way they tried without success to avail themselves of the help of the Hawaikian Awa, or Whanau Apanui, at Maraenui. On the other hand the Rangihouhiri summoned to their aid two Opotiki tribes, one of them (such is the irony of fate) was Ngatipukenga, who had commenced all their troubles by driving them out of their home at Tawhitirahi.

When ready the combined forces of Ngatimaru (Tainui), under Te Ruinga, Ranginui (Takitumu), under Kinonui, who was carried

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in a litter, also Waitaha and Tapuika under Tiritiri and Manu, sons of Tatahau, advanced upon Maketu. The first encounter was a night attack upon an outwork, Herekaki pa, which was taken, and Tutenaehe the commander was slain. He was the eldest son of Te Rangihouhiri, who, when he heard the intelligence, exclaimed "0! my son, you have gone by the night tide, I will follow by the morning tide!" He alluded to the tide because it is the custom in that part of the country where much travelling is done by the beach, to wait for low tide to make a journey. Sure enough the old man's words came true, and by the morning tide he followed his son to the unknown world. The next morning opened with the beginning of the battle of Poporohuamea, in which great numbers were engaged, and that lasted all day. The field of battle was on the high ground immediately above the entrance to Waihi River, and in the valley there that descends through the high ground towards the sea coast. It was there that the Maui Maori and the Hawaikian Maori joined issue in perhaps the greatest battle of the open field that was ever fought by the two races. The struggle ended at last in mutual exhaustion. The party in possession retired to its pas, and the other side, who had tried to oust them, gave up the attempt, recrossed the Kaituna, and returned to the places they had come from. Te Rangihouhiri is the only great chief whose name is handed down as killed in this battle. From the death of Te

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Rangihouhiri the tribe of that name became known by the name of Ngaeterangi, by which name they are called at the present day.

After the battle of Poporohuamea the Ngaoho tribes (Arawa) of the lake district, took up the quarrel and determined to expel the intruding Ngaeterangi. Year after year they sent armies to Maketu, not one of which made any impression on the enemy. The first army fought a little and returned home. The next was defeated with great slaughter at Kawa swamp, near Maketu, and their chief Taiwere was killed; that army returned to the lakes. Smarting under defeat and loss the Ngaoho again set forth to be again hurled back at Kawa with the loss of Moekaha, Taiwere's brother. They had as many killed at Kawa No. 2 battle as at Kawa No 1. Assistance was now sought and obtained from Ngatihaua tribe, of the Upper Thames, and another campaign opened against Maketu, when a general action Kakaho No. 2 resulted in the crushing defeat of the combined Ngaoho and Ngatihaua. Haua, the chief of Ngatihaua, was slain, and Ariariterangi, the brother of Taiwere and Moekaha, was drowned in making his escape. After this the Ngaoho, or Arawa, determined to avenge the death of Ariariterangi, and his son, Te Roro te Rangi, led an army against Maketu. This expedition effected nothing. After fighting awhile Roro te Rangi made peace with Ngaeterangi, offerings were given to cement the peace, and Roro te Rangi returned home to Rotorua.

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Thus ended a war that had lasted many years, involving many tribes and much bloodshed, there had been several pitched battles in the field, and the conquerors had stormed thirteen pas. Peace was made with the Tauranga tribes of Waitaha a Hei and Ngatiranginui (Waitaha Turauta on the east side of Maketu had taken no part in the war). As for Tapuika, their broken power was not worthy of consideration, and was simply ignored. Ngaeterangi now held undisturbed possession of Maketu, and about 75 square miles of excellent land, their territory extending halfway to the lakes; with them were associated Ngatiwhakahinga, a co-tribe or section of Ngaeterangi, that had not been driven out of Opotiki by Ngatiha. Ngatipukenga (formerly called Ngatiha), returned to Waiaua after the battle of Poporohuamea, where they had suffered much; Ngaeterangi availed themselves of their assistance at the battle, but their presence was not particularly acceptable afterwards. We shall, however, hear more of this most pugnacious tribe, which, as it had rendered others homeless, by a just retribution became homeless itself.

Such was the peaceful condition of the political horizon to Ngaeterangi, as resting on their laurels they enjoyed the tranquil outlook, when suddenly another war-cloud rose, of aspect most terrible; they were precipitated into it and all was strife again.

It happened that a canoe went out from Tauranga to fish in the open sea. Two chiefs were in this canoe, named Taurawheke and Te

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Turanganui. A westerly gale arose and drove the canoe before it until it was lost and the people all drowned excepting one man, Taurawheke, who escaped by swimming to Okurei, Maketu Point. Here he was found in an exhausted state by a woman who was looking for shellfish amongst the rocks. She took him to a sheltered place under the cliffs, and went to fetch food and clothes for him. On the way she met her husband and told him how she had found Taurawheke and where she had left him. As soon as she had departed on her errand the husband went and killed Taurawheke and ate of him, and continued thus to indulge himself from time to time secretly, the people of his tribe, Ngaeterangi, knowing nothing about it, but his wife knew.

At Tauranga it was supposed that the canoe had been lost at sea with all hands. Sometime, however, after this, the man, evidently a brutal fellow, beat his wife severely, and she exclaimed, "Oh! I can punish you by telling what you did." The busybodies of the tribe (of whom there always is, have been, and will be a number everywhere) now sought to penetrate the mystery of the wife's words, nor stopped until the murder was out, and all over the place, and news of it had been taken to Tauranga. Ngatiranginui and Waitaha were not slow to seek revenge. They caught two Ngaeterangi chiefs at Otaiparia at Te Tumu getting toetoe. 3 They were Tuwhiwhia and his

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son, Tauaiti. The father they killed, and putting his headless body into his canoe sent it adrift to float down the stream to Maketu. The son they took to Tauranga and killed at their leisure by torture and mutilation. In his agony Tauaiti said to his persecutors: "My pain is shallow compared to the ocean of pain to come," signifying thereby what their pain would be like before long.

The drift canoe was seen at Maketu and told its own tale. Intelligence, too, of Tauaiti's suffering and death was subsequently received, and entered deeply into the feelings of the people. Their rage at the Tauranga people was dreadful, to whom they determined that the cup of wrath should be administered and drunk to the dregs. Then was seen how Kotorerua, the younger brother of Tauaiti, rose to the occasion. Putangimaru, a chief of Raukawa, at Waikato, was travelling at this time and came to Maketu; he was known to be a wise man, and powerfully possessed of the art of divination. Kotorerua suggested to his sister, Tuwera, that she should be complacent to their guest. Putangi was pleased and Tuwera returned with him to his home as his wife, and Kotorerua was invited to follow them to their place at Hinuera in order that Putangi and he might have opportunity to divine and make plans together.

To avoid his enemies at Tauranga, Kotorerua travelled through the forest by Otawa to Te Pawhakahorohoro, where he found a guide left

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for him by Putangimaru named Ika. They travelled to Whenuakura, whence all the country could be seen around. Ika pointed out the road and the place where Putangimaru lived. Kotorerua having got this information, killed Ika unawares, because he wanted some portions of his body to divine with before he met Putangimaru. Having performed this office, he pursued his journey, taking Ika's head with him. Putangimaru received Kotorerua with distinction, and asked if he had seen Ika. "Yes," said Kotorerua, "he brought me through the forest, and then I was able to find my way by myself; so I killed Ika, as I had to divine before I met you."

"You acted very wisely," said Putangi.

"I have brought Ika's head for us both to divine upon," said Kotorerua. This also received the approval of Putangimaru. Then they divined carefully and found the auguries favourable, and they took counsel together and formed the plan of a campaign. This done, Kotorerua returned to Maketu to push his preparations, and in due time he attacked the large pa of Ranginui and Waitaha at Maunganui.

The pa of Maunganui, situated on the hill of that name, covered about 100 acres. The fortifications crossed the top of the hill and ran down each side, then, circling round the base towards the south, they met. Waitaha held the east side, and Ngatiranginui the west side of the pa, which enjoyed a beautiful view

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and splendid position on the shore of the harbour. The fortifications were so strong and the garrison so numerous that the pa seemed impregnable to Maori weapons--no matter what the prowess, the situation, with the means at command, was unassailable. It was to take this pa that Putangimaru and Kotorerua had devised a plan as daring as it was able, and, perhaps, the only one by which the object could have been effected. On the top of the hill on the north side of the pa, there was a point 850 feet above the sea, which, under certain circumstances would be vulnerable. Kotorerua undertook to solve the problem by inducing the required conditions and making the attack at that point, a narrow pass, flanked by walls of rock, and to which the approach from below for an attacking party, was exceedingly steep. That point once secured, the pa must fall, for it was the key to the position. A handful of defenders, however, could hold it against any number from without. Kotorerua's scheme was to show no intention of making war on Kinonui, the chief of Maunganui; on the contrary, he would lull suspicion by appearing to conciliate him with a handsome present. The offering should come to Kino late on the evening of a dark and stormy night. Kino and his people would then be occupied fully in entertaining the present-bearers, or pretending to entertain them, and in counselling amongst themselves and trying to fathom this new and unexpected departure by Kotorerua. In this

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way many hours, perhaps the whole night, must elapse before Kinonui and his people would think of taking action of any kind, and during those precious moments of irresolution Kotorerua intended to destroy him; for meanwhile, under cover of darkness and storm, the whole force of Ngaeterangi would be thrown into the pa through the gap on the top of the hill. The army to perform this service would have to risk the storm in canoes, passing along the coast unseen at night, and landing immediately below the gap in a narrow channel between the rocks called Te Awaiti. The bearers of the present were to slip out of the pa in the darkness and cut the lashings of the topsides of all the canoes on the beach and rocks in front of the pa. If all went well, this rather complicated scheme would no doubt realise the hopes of its authors, but there were obviously several awkward contingencies connected with it, which must have caused considerable anxiety at the time to those charged with its execution. It happened, however, that everything came to pass exactly as Putangimaru and Kotorerua had planned.

One evening, Kotorerua and one hundred and forty followers, armed, presented themselves unexpectedly before the fortifications of Maunganui, bearing a present to Kinonui of one hundred baskets of kokowai (red ochre); it was houru, the kind prepared by burning, and> it was said, had been obtained with much labour from the streams of Kaikokopu. The rain had

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overtaken them on the road, and they explained that they had been delayed while preventing their kokowai from getting wet. As it was too late to go through the formalities of presentation, the baskets were stacked at the quarters assigned to the visitors. Thus an inspection of the present was avoided, which was just as well, seeing that each was only a basket of earth, with a layer of kokowai at the top. Kotorerua and such of his followers as he desired to accompany him were taken to the large meeting-house in the pa, where the distinguished men of the pa met them. This large house, belonging to Kinonui, stood on the little plateau above the place that is now called Stony Point; and then ensued between the host and his guest a scene, sustained for hours, of courtly urbanity and matchless dissimulation, covering a substratum of deadly hate; each with unparalleled ability was playing for the almost immediate destruction of the other and all who were with him. On the one hand, Kotorerua had to appear at ease and without a trace of anxiety, conversing about anything or nothing, to gain time and disarm suspicion-- and this, notwithstanding his men might be discovered at any moment tampering with the canoes on the beach below the pa, and notwithstanding the safety of all concerned, and the success of the enterprise, depended upon the arrival in time of the canoes through the storm. On the other hand, Kinonui had at all hazards to keep his guest interested until daylight, when

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his people would be able to see what they were doing, for it was intended that Kotorerua and all his party should then be killed; they could not kill them in the dark without accident and confusion, and some might escape in the darkness. Meanwhile Kotorerua was not to be allowed to rejoin his men; but to kill him now would alarm them, and many would try to escape, therefore the conversation was kept up between these two great actors, each working for his own ends, as they sat facing one another with apparent indifference, but watchful of every movement. Now and then an attendant of one of the chiefs would come in or go out, seemingly about nothing in particular, but really keeping communication open with their respective parties outside.

At length, Kotorerua was made aware that the time for action had arrived. All his staff had left the meeting-house as if fatigued; presently one of them returned about something and went out again, leaving the door open after him. Kotorerua rose, and in a moment had passed swiftly out. Kinonui had not time to prevent him, so unexpected was the movement of the younger man and so sudden; he called after Kotorerua and ran to stop him, but it was too late, the sliding-door was slammed in his face and the lanyard fastened outside. The time for mock ceremony had passed; that which was real should now take place. A torch is banded to Kotorerua and quickly applied to the raupo wall, the meeting-house is wreathed in

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flames, and Kinonui with his associates are immolated at the ceremony of their own funeral pyre.

Then, by the illumination cast around, an avalanche of war was seen descending from the mountain-top, sweeping its course right down to the sea, and crushing the people as it rolled over them. Such as escaped the dread invasion fled to their canoes, and thrust off into the harbour, but the canoes, already wrecked, filled with water, and the occupants were drowned in trying to swim to the opposite and distant shore.

Thus, with the head rather than the arm, did Kotorerua break the power of Ngatiranginui and Waitaha, and it was all done by a coup de main in a few short hours. The conquest of the rest of the district of Tauranga speedily followed. Katikati and the islands on the north side of the harbour were first subdued. This was Kinonui's own domain, and the poor people in it were too panic-stricken to offer any effectual resistance. Tamapahore took the Waitaha country on the east, including the possessions of the Kaponga, hapu of Ngatiranginui, at Waimapu and Wairoa, and Ruinga, between Wairoa and Waipapa, were still intact when Kotorerua returned to Tauranga after a temporary absence. He was then surprised and displeased to find that terms of peace had been granted to Ngatiranginui at Otumoetai pa, that the same had been ratified by a marriage. Kotorerua refused absolutely to be a party to

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the arrangement. He immediately attacked Otumoetai and destroyed the people in the pa. This, with the fall of some minor pas on the south side of the harbour, completed the subjugation of the Tauranga country by Ngaeterangi.

Kotorerua's campaign at Maunganui denotes consummate generalship, with troops of finest quality and discipline, and a high military and naval organisation. Only with such material could such a daring and complicated scheme have been carried out, but the general knew the quality of his men, and therein he showed his capacity. The maxim, that for desperate cases desperate remedies are necessary, must, I suppose, be taken as a sufficient warrant for the general when staking everything upon the unknown quantity of a gale of wind at sea, but the auguries had been favourable, and we cannot tell how much that influenced him. I have myself been impressed with the unquestioning faith the old Maori chiefs had in the auguries vouchsafed to them. I remember such an one who went through many battles in the belief that no bullet could harm him. He might be wounded, he said (experience showed that), but he could not be killed. He died in his bed, with a reputation that extended throughout the North Island.

Wolfe, going by boat, took the enemy in the rear at night on the Heights of Abraham, but be had not a sea voyage by boat in storm, and a night landing through breakers on the coast to make. On the contrary, he had a river so

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calm to go upon that, we are told, he recited Gray's "Elegy" to his staff at that time; nor had he to enter the enemy's camp and delude him, while in the act of destroying his means of retreat, by breaking his boats not one hundred yards away. Yet there was a rift in Kotorerua's lute which wellnigh spoilt the harmony of his combination. He was a young man, and his uncle, Tamapahore, was a veteran leader in battles. On this occasion the latter, with his division, held aloof and did not join the flotilla, which was kept waiting for hours, until the very last moment possible, when at length he put in an appearance. This happened presumably through jealousy; however pressure or loyalty to Ngaeterangi prevailed in the end, but Tamapahore never got a quarter in the pa at Maunganui. The place he chose was made too uncomfortable for occupation; the other Ngaeterangi rolled great stones down the hill to his location; he took the hint, and made a pa elsewhere at Maungatapu. The jealousy, if such, of this old Maori warrior was natural enough; more highly civilised soldiers have felt the same, and some have not come out of the ordeal as well. Witness, for instance, the misconduct of that Imperial Archduke, who, by withholding his hand, caused his brother to lose the field of Wagram. See also the jealousy and disunion of Napoleon's marshals in the Peninsula. The Waitaha remnant fled to Te Rotoiti; the remnants of Ngatiranginui, as already stated, escaped into the forest at the back of

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A Maori War Expedition.

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Tepuna, and there they became known as Te Pirirakau, which is their name still.

It will be remembered how the aborigines permitted a few of the immigrants by Takitumu to settle at Tauranga; those persons kept up a connection with their compatriots at Whangara. Kahungungu, the ancestor of the great tribe of that name, was a Takitumuan of Tauranga, who left his native place and went south to live amongst the other Takitumuans because his elder brother had grossly insulted him, by striking him on the mouth with a kahawai (a fish). Similarly, two hundred and forty years after the settlement at Whangara had been made, Ranginui moved with his people from Hangaroa (between Poverty Bay and Wairoa, H.B.) to Tauranga, and camped on the left bank of the Wairoa, near where the bridge on the Katikati road is now. They were squatting on land belonging to Ngamarama, a numerous tribe, who owned the whole country west of Waimapu River. The Ngamarama resented the encroachment, and, to put a stop to it, caused two Ngatiranginui children to be drowned by their own children while bathing together in the Wairoa. The Ranginui children fled home and told what had been done to them. The tribe considered the matter, and next day the children were directed to return and bathe as though nothing had happened, and when the Ngamarama children joined them they were without fail to drown some of them; this the children did, and reported that they had

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drowned a Rangatira girl. War followed, resulting in time in the destruction and expatriation of Ngamarama, and this is how Ngatiranginui became possessed of Tauranga, where they lived undisturbed one hundred and twenty years, until Ngaeterangi came and took it from them, about two hundred and forty years ago. 4


I will now mention Ngatipukenga more particularly, who formerly lived at Waiaua, east of Opotiki. We have seen that they drove the Rangihouhiri away from Tawhitirahi, also that when the same Rangihouhiri took Maketu and killed Tatahau they, the Ngatipukenga, came to Maketu, hoping to join in the spoil, and took part at the battle of Poporohuamea. Their chiefs at that battle were Kahukino and Te Tini o Awa. The tribe, I should say, was of the ancient aboriginal stock. At the battle named they suffered severely, and recrossed the Waihi, whence they returned home. The Rangihouhiri had not forgotten Tawhitirahi and did not solicit their aid at the campaign of Maunganui. When they heard, however, of Kotorerua's success at Maunganui, they hurried up to Tauranga, to try and share in the spoil, and this time they managed to get a large tract of land next to Tamapahore's selection on the west

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side. Here they became so overbearing that all the Ngaeterangi hapus united against them about one hundred years ago, and drove them completely out of the Tauranga district. Their culminating offence was a ruthless assault upon a number of women of Ngaeterangi who were collecting shellfish on the flats laid bare by the tide near Te Papa. At their rout they fled by way of Whareroa (where they left their canoes thickly lining the beach, which ever after was called Whakapaewaka) to Orangimate pa, half way to Maketu. Thus the measure meted by them to Te Rangihouhiri was measured to them by Ngaeterangi, Rangihouhiri's descendants.

After this expulsion Ngatipukenga hated Ngaeterangi bitterly, and never lost an opportunity of joining the enemies of that tribe.

When Tapuika fell before Ngaeterangi at Te Karaka, Ngatipukenga came and helped them to obtain revenge at Te Kakaho.

When Ngatiwhakahinga retired from Maketu before Ngatemaru, Ngatipukenga went and occupied that place.

Then Te Rarau from Waikato and Ngaeterangi attacked them, seeking to drive them away from Maketu, but effected nothing.

Then Ngapuhi, armed with guns, came, at whose approach Ngatipukenga fled inland to Te Whakatangaroa, near Te Hiapo, and Maketu was evacuated by them. But some time after Ngatitematera, from Hauraki, attacked and took Te Whakatangaroa, and Ngatipukenga fled to the lakes.

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A war party of Ngatirawharo, allies of Ngaeterangi, going from Tauranga to attack Okahu pa at Rotoiti, were encountered en route by Ngatipukenga and an action was fought at Te Papanui, where Ngatipukenga were defeated.

After this the elder Taipari, of Hauraki, made peace with Ngatipukenga.

Ngapuhi came a second time to Tauranga, and on this occasion joined Ngaeterangi against Ngatipukenga, Orangimate pa was taken with much slaughter, and the refugees fled to Rotorua. At length Ngatipukenga decided to go to Hauraki, whence their feud could be carried on more easily and effectively. They, therefore, left Orangimate and Maketu, to which places they had returned from the lakes, and joined Ngatimaru at the Thames, by whom some of them were located at Manaia, near Coromandel, where they are now known as Te Tawera.

From the Thames they went with Ngatimaru to Maungatautari, from whence they operated against Ngaeterangi thrice, losing two engagements at Te Taumata and gaining one in which the Ngaeterangi chief, Tarakiteawa, was killed.

Then followed the taking of Te Papa pa at Tauranga by Te Rohu, of the Thames, where Ngatipukenga were present and joined in the assault. Te Papa was destroyed in utu for the murder by Ngaeterangi of Te Hiwi, near the Wairoa River. Te Hiwi was a chief of Ngatiraukawa.

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From Te Papa Te Rohu advanced to Maketu, Ngatipukenga accompanying him. They found the pa occupied by Ngapotiki of Ngaeterangi. The pa was taken and many Ngapotiki were slain.

Again, Ngatipukenga followed Ngatimaru through the war at Haowhenua and Taumatawiwi, and after the defeat suffered there Ngatipukenga fled to Rotorua, where they hardly escaped death because they had murdered Te Kuiti at Rotorua, on a former visit, and because they had killed Te Oneone at Maketu. These were very good reasons why they should be killed and eaten, but they were saved through an old marriage of one of their chiefs with a Ngatiwhakaue woman of rank. However, Ngatiwhakaue would not allow them to remain at Ohinemutu, and they passed on to Maketu, which place they held until Te Waharoa took their pa and killed nearly the whole of them. The remnant fled back to Rotorua. When Maketu was re-taken by the Arawa this remnant returned to Maketu, where it has remained to the present time.

During the civil war at Tauranga in the fifties, Ngatipukenga were invited from Manaia to help Ngatihe, with the promise of receiving land at Ngapeke, at Tauranga. They came and got the land, but rendered no military service for it, for the war was over before they arrived. A number of Ngatipukenga live at Ngapeke still.

The little tui was the ruin of Ngatipukenga. It involved them in a long struggle with

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Ngaeterangi that lasted for generations, and reduced their number to such an extent that they ceased to have power to disturb anyone; moreover they lost all their lands at Opotiki and Tauranga, through the restless and pugnacious spirit which followed their adventure at Tawhitirahi.


Ngatirawharo were like Ngaeterangi, only more Hawaikian, perhaps. Originally they lived at Ohiwa, whence they moved to Waiohau, on the Rangitaiki River. The Ngatipukeko a tribe of Ngatiawa, objected to what they considered a trespass on their land, and attacked them. Marupuku was the chief of Ngatipukeko, who led this war, in which there was much fighting, lasting a long time. The following battles were fought: Whakaaronga, where Ngatirawharo suffered severely; then Putahinui and Pounatehe were engagements at which Irawharo were beaten and driven many miles toward the sea. This happened about the time that Te Rangihouhiri made their progress from Opotiki to Tauranga. Ngatipukeko continued from time to time, with more or less success, to wage war. They fought at Otamarakau at Waiohau, at Tamahanga near Raerua, at Tapuae, and at Omataroa. On each occasion they improved their position, and after the action last named, Ngatirawharo were compelled to move off their land and cross the river

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at Te Teko; but the people at Te Teko would not allow them to remain there, so they had no option but to move on, nor stopped until, with reduced numbers, they arrived at Otamarakau at Waitahanui. There, and at Te Ruataniwha, they settled, and remained a long time. At length they joined their friends, the Ngaeterangi, at Tauranga, where they have lived ever since. This tribe has forgotten that it has aboriginal blood in its veins.


Shortly after the termination of their war with the Kareke tribe at Te Poroa, Ngatipukeko, under Te Muinga, went to Te Whaiti to live. Te Muinga's example was not immediately followed by all the chiefs, but in the course of four or five years all the great chiefs had moved from Whakatane to Te Whaiti, Tehe only remaining at Papaka to take care of that place (Papaka, it will be remembered, was the strong pa at Whakatane that Tamapahore was prowling round on the night when he grossly insulted a chief's daughter). In time about six hundred fighting men had settled at Te Whaiti, whose chiefs were Kihi, Mokai, Tautari in his youth, Te Mahunu, and Te Moeroa. Their principal pa was Nihowhati. It happened one day that Tamahi of theirs set out on a journey to Whakatane, for numbers of the tribe continually passed and repassed between the two

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places. When he arrived at Puketapu, a pa at Mangahouhi, Tamahi met a war-party of the Uriwera, under Paiterangi, who slew him. Ngatihaka saw the deed and took the body of Tamahi and buried it. Soon after, three men of Ngatimanawa passing by, dug up the body and ate it. They were Manakore, Tarewarua, and Matarehua. When Ngatipukeko heard of it, all the body had been consumed.

Then Kihi led Ngatipukeko away from the members of all other tribes, to a remote place in the forest, where he said he wished a clearing to be made, but when they had arrived on the ground he cast aside his stone axe and grasped his weapon; they all did the same, and a council of war was held to know what should be done. It was unanimously decided to avenge the insult offered by Ngatimanawa, and this was done by making a night attack under Kihi on Parakakariki pa, near Tutu Tarata. They killed Te Matau and vindicated their honour. Then peace was ostensibly made and hostilities ceased.

After the foregoing episode, messages came to Ngatipukeko at Te Whaiti, from the tribes at Taupo and Whanganui, asking them to come and fight for them. The tribe was summoned to a council of war, and Kihi urged the enterprise, saying to the chiefs Matua and Taimimiti: "Go and lead the fight." They answered: "No, go you and lead, for you are our fighting chief." (Kihi was probably afraid to leave the home of the tribe in the care of the two chiefs named.) However, he went with a

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war party of seven score men, and had a very successful campaign, taking pas at Whangaehu, near Whanganui.

During Kihi's absence Matua and Taimimiti went on a fishing excursion (but Ngatimanawa chose to say they went to kill men in utu for the violation of Te Wharekohuru, Tautari's daughter). They were busy catching eels when they received an invitation from Ngatimanawa, at Waiirohia, near by. They accepted the proffered hospitality, and, as a reward for their simplicity, they and their party of seven were slain. Having thus committed themselves, Ngatimanawa immediately arose and destroyed two Ngatipukeko villages, Ngatahuna and another; only one person escaped, who fled from the latter to Nihowhati. But though warned, Nihowhati was nevertheless destroyed, the bulk of the people being away. Te Munga and one hundred people were burnt at Nihowhati in a large house in the pa, called Te Umu ki te Ngaere.

It happened, however, that one man, named Mato, escaped unperceived from the rear of the house, and gave the alarm to the scattered Ngatipukeko in the surrounding country, who all collected at Oromaitaki, where they were joined by the refugees of Ngatiwhare, for Ngatiwhare had suffered also, and there they built a pa to defend themselves. Karia was sent to recall Kihi, and fortunately met him returning with his war party close at hand at Kaingaroa.

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On hearing the dreadful intelligence, the warriors of the Ngatipukeko whose families had been massacred, determined to kill Kihi on the spot for taking them away to Whanganui. But Kihi said: "Let me live to get vengeance. If the other chiefs had lived you might have killed me, and I would have been willing to die, but they are all slain, and there is no one else to lead you now. Let me live to seek vengeance." Then Ngatipukeko spared him.

Soon they came upon a birdcatcher of Ngatimanawa, whom they questioned, and learned that they were close to the main body of Ngatimanawa, seven or eight hundred strong, who were about to attack Oromaitaki. Killing the birdcatcher, they advanced and presently perceived the enemy reconnoitring the pa. They remained unperceived, and at daylight next morning attacked him unawares, routing him with slaughter and the loss of two chiefs; but they found at the end of the action that the birdcatcher had deceived them, and that the main body of the enemy had not been engaged. On this they became very cautious, watching all detached parties, and cutting them off. By this means several score of Ngatimanawa were killed. At length a general action was fought, in which Ngatimanawa, although assisted by Ngatihineuru from Runanga, were defeated. Then for the first time Kihi's war party went to Oromaitaki to mingle their lamentations with the people there for the many murdered members of the tribe. For a short time only did

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they weep, and then they went out fom the pa the same day to fight the enemy at Ikarea. This was not a decisive action, but the next battle fought at Mangatara was entirely favourable to Ngatipukeko. It was a very peculiar battle, because it was fought by women. There were only thirty-seven Ngatipukeko men engaged, all the rest who fought were women, and the odds against them were fearful. But first, I should say, that the Ngatipukeko had been out-generalled. They were scattered in pursuit of detached parties, when suddenly Ngatimanawa fell, with concentrated force, upon their headquarters, where their families were. The women were equal to the occasion. They rigged up guys so well that the enemy was deceived, and in forming for attack laid himself open to an irresistible onset in the flank. The Amazons displayed a wonderful courage and knowledge of the art of war. With hair cropped short and bodies nude 5 they charged into the undefended side of the enemy, with such force as to throw him into confusion. Moenga was the distinguished Amazon of the day. She fought with a paiaka, and hewed the Ngatimanawa down on every side. On all sides the enemy fell, until he broke and fled; the main body of Ngatipukeko army came up in time to follow in pursuit, nor stopped until Runanga was reached. From there the Ngatimanawa, or rather, what was left of them, passed on to Mohaka, where Te

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Kahu o te Rangi, a chief of Ngatikahungungu, made slaves of them. Te Kahu soon found that he was being cheated by his slaves. The birds they caught were given to a chief of another tribe. Finding they were not to be trusted, he ill-treated and killed them.

Then Ngaetuhoe, a tribe of the Uriwera, took compassion on the miserable remnant of Ngatimanawa, and brought them away to Maungapohatu, and they had some old kumara pits given them to live in. While they lived in this abject condition at Maungapohatu, the Ngatimanawa sent Kato and others to Kihi to sue for peace. Their petition was granted, and terms were fixed. The next day another section of Ngatipukeko sent for Kato and his friends, to hear and discuss the terms named; this, however, was only a ruse, for as soon as Kato and his companions appeared, some of whom were related to Ngatiwhare, they killed and ate them. Therefore, for ever after that treacherous hapu of Ngatipukeko was called Ngatikohuru (hapu of murderers).

Now, when Ngatipukeko had conquered Ngatimanawa, Ngatiwhare became afraid of their inflamed and bloodthirsty demeanour, and quietly withdrew to the mountains, and there remained until intelligence was received of the murder of their friends by Ngatikohuru. Then, from being friendly from a distance, they changed and became active enemies to Ngatipukeko, although closely related to them, and revenge in some way was determined upon.

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The opportunity was not long in coming. News. was received that Ngatipukeko were sending a deputation of chiefs to the Uriwera at Ruatahuna; instantly Ngatiwhare dispatched Karia, their chief, to Ruatahuna, there to persuade the Uriwera chief, Rangikawhetu, to kill the deputation when it should arrive. Rangikawhetu assented to Karia's proposal, and tried to carry it out. His success was only partial, for Mokai and Kuraroa escaped. This affair created a further complication in the political outlook, and for a long time Ngatipukeko were embroiled with the Uriwera tribe. At this time Ngatipukeko had possession of the right bank of Rangitaika from Waiohau to Te Whaiti, where they lived many years undisturbed, and then they returned under Kihi to Whakatane. From Whakatane they went to Te Awa o te Atua and lived a while, and there they saw Captain Cook's ship pass by. They went off to the vessel and saw the people on board of her. 6 Again they returned to Whakatane, where a deputation from Ngatimanawa and Ngatiwhare sued for peace and to be permitted to return to their homes at Te Whaiti, and Ngatipukeko allowed them to go there.

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When the chief Matua was murdered, as I have said, while eel-catching at Waiirohia, he left a little son named Tama te Rangi, who grew up to be a man imbued with the strongest hatred of his father's murderers. This feeling had been carefully instilled into him by his widowed mother from earliest childhood, by songs and hakas, and by the persistent character of remarks which were specially directed against Potaua, and she took care to have Tama te Rangi carefully trained to the use of arms.

Potaua heard what the widow had done, and he feared to approach Te Tirina country, where she lived. At length he came to Puketapu, a pa on the Rangitaiki, by the racecourse at Te Teko. He was encouraged to venture there by the presence of Harehare and two other chiefs, with whom he thought he should be safe from insult and attack.

Tama te Rangi heard that Potaua had come to Puketapu, in the Pahipoto country, and when he heard it he said to his people at Whakatane that he would go and see him.

Taking two companions he went, and at night he camped in the fern, a mile or two from Puketapu pa. He informed the chiefs of the pa by a messenger that he had come, and they invited him to the pa for the night.

Tama te Rangi replied that they would see him come to their pa by the light of the day.

The next morning Tama was seen approaching, and the whole population turned

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out to see what he would do. He came and walked up the narrow roadway into the public place of the pa, all people respectfully making way for him and his companions. Here on an arena already formed and guarded stood Potaua. The chiefs of the pa were standing at the further end of the space, beyond Potaua. Tama te Rangi entered the arena at once, and advanced confidently upon his enemy, who had a presentiment that his hour had come. This unnerved him, and the young man's vigour and skill overcame him, and he fell, slain by the avenger of blood, in the presence of all the people.

Hatua, the father of the late Rangitukehu, leaped forward, and by his great influence saved the other Ngatimanawa visitors, who, in the excitement of the moment, would have been killed on the spot by the people of his tribe.


It was in the lake country that Eke, a faithless fair eloped to the forest with Utu, a middle-aged chief of considerable authority and weighty connections. The feeling of the tribe was very much roused against Utu, for Tua, the injured husband, was a popular man, and one of their best fighting chiefs, whereas Utu had never distinguished himself in any way, excepting on the present occasion, which had proved him oblivious to the obligations due to a friend and neighbour. The truant pair journeyed to other parts, and remained away

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until Utu, tired of his toy, and wearied of the exile, determined to go home and face the consequences. So one morning an affair of honour came off on the sands of Ruapeka Bay, at Ohinemutu. Utu, accompanied by his friend, Ana, were there on one side, and Tua, with four other principals, were there on the other side. Ana was not a principal, and was not there to fight, but the four men who were with Tua had each of them come to get satisfaction as near relations to the husband, or to the wife, for the Maoris were communistic in their customs. Any of these principals could have taken Tua's children from him, and they were equally entitled to avenge his honour, for was it not their honour also?

Utu sat before these five adversaries on the sand, unarmed, provided only with a short stick called a karo, with which to ward off any spears thrown at him, or blows from other weapons that might be used. Had he been a slave he would not have been allowed to have even a karo, but must have defended himself with his hands and arms. Utu's karo had been well karakia-ed by the priest.

All being ready the duel began. Tua remained inactive while each of the four men who had accompanied him advanced in turn and threw a spear at Utu, who managed to karo, ward off, the four darts without hurt to himself. The rights of the four were now exhausted. The Atua having caused their attacks to fail, they could not be repeated without danger to

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themselves; any one of them who, contrary to all canons human and divine, should renew his attack, would be liable in himself or his family to misfortune (aitua) by sickness, accident, or otherwise. Even against a slave attack could not be renewed. These assailants had had every chance. The choice of weapons and how to use them had been theirs. They had chosen spears. The weight of the weapon and the distance at which to throw it had been at their option. Any one of them for that matter might have walked up to Utu as he sat and speared him on the spot at short point, had he been able, but they were too experienced to attempt it. Utu would have defended himself easily in that case. Rising at the right moment, and advancing a pace, he would have fixed his opponent's eye, and by a dexterous movement of his right hand would have seized and averted the thrust--thus to disarm an enemy to one who knew how was as simple as shaking hands with a friend.

As we have disposed of the four in theory and practice, let us return to Tua, whom we left looking on, apparently almost an indifferent spectator. The four had failed, and this seemed suddenly to rouse his feelings, for he went off into a dance wholly scornful in gesture of his friends, and somewhat defiant of his enemies, treating all to an exhibition of agility as he darted from place to place, and skill in brandishing his weapon, and riveting attention, his own the while being fixed in semi-challenge

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to the bunglers, and thus he gained his point of vantage, and wheeling, struck the unsuspecting Ana, whom nobody wished to hurt, and thus the duel ended as communistically as it had begun. I should say that Hea, a brother of Tua, being of a utilitarian disposition, had refrained from exercising his right at the encounter. The satisfaction he required was a bit of land. Utu recognised the claim, and gave him a nice little town site overlooking the lake.


As in his private warfare, so in his general life. The Maori was a thorough communist. But through the warp of his communism woofs of chieftainship and priestcraft were woven into a texture strong enough to answer all the requirements of his simple civilisation. Where communal usage did not reach the case the chief's was the executive governing power that dealt with it. Thus, communal usage might require a muru, 7 and it would be made accordingly by persons having the right. If a man's wife went wrong her people would muru him for not taking better care of her, this was usage; but if the chief ordered a muru it would be for reasons known to himself, presumably for the benefit of the tribe. If a man gave much trouble the chief might have him muru-ed, or he might take his wife from him. If he misconducted himself in war, the chief might strike

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him with his weapon. As a rule, however, these manifestations of authority were seldom needed, and very seldom exercised. The chieftainship of the tribe was an hereditary office, passing from father to son by the law of primogeniture; if the regular successor lacked the mental vigour and force necessary to the position, then another member of the hereditary family would be put in his place. The chief generally consulted advisers, or was supported by a council. In any ease the chief could not run counter to the will of the people.

The priest performed many religious offices for the community. Questions of tapu were in his keeping. At times of sickness his aid was invoked. At births he was not absent, and at baptisms his presence was necessary. He advised the chiefs as to the will of the gods, and he greatest weight was attached to his utterances on such occasions. He always received fees in the form of presents. As a rule he supported the governing power. If the priest (tohunga) stood high in his profession, and was sent for from a distance to perform an important function, his fee would be commensurate to the event. He did not neglect the requirements of the humble members of the community. The widow with her small offering received his conscientious attention. Her child's illness was diagnosed and prescribed for and karakia-ed the same as for a more prosperous person. The priest's office was hereditary.

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Although the chief carried himself with an air of authority, and the priest wore an appearance of superiority, each was subtly influenced by the communism of the body of which he formed a part. The former felt the pulse of the people before taking a step; the latter did not disregard their feelings and prejudices. Each lived in the same way as the people around him. Sometimes, however, a chief rose by violence or intrigue to such a commanding position among other tribes that his own tribe acquired perfect confidence in his judgment and ability, and followed him implicitly. Such men were Tuwhakairiora, the first Te Waharoa, Te Rauparaha, and Hongi Hika.

As I have said, the Maori was a communist. Excepting perhaps a patch of land he might own privately, and his weapons and ornaments, the only thing he could draw the line at, and safely say, "This is mine," was his wife, who, before she blended her life with his, had been from earliest youth in principle and practice also a communist of the free love kind, not that much love had been involved, only that "through some shades of earthly feeling," she had tripped from pleasure to pleasure, not waiting to be wooed, and shedding in lieu of the "meek and vestal fires," "a glow so warm and yet so shadowy, too," upon her associates, "as made the very darkness there more sought after than light elsewhere." May I be pardoned for adapting the lines of the poet to my subject, who was neither a Delilah nor a Messalina, but

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Waka Nene

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a simple Eve of nature, against whom, in her own people's eyes there was no law nor fault to find--kahore he ture. But when she became a wife she rose to a higher sphere. Her animal habits changed as if by magic. Her communistic shell was cast, and she emerged an individual, a faithful Maori matron, with all the rights and obligations pertaining to her new condition.

But to return to our Maori communist. He could not even claim his own children exclusively. For his brother, if childless, might, and most likely would, come and take one of them away and adopt it, and his sister might take another; so also his wife's sister might assert a similar right, but they could not among them deprive him of all his children. Communism stepped in at that point and took his part, for was he not as well entitled as they to share in the offspring?

The house he lived in was called a wharepuni (living close together house). It contained but one room, in which both sexes, old and young, married and single, lived together night and day, and, according to size, it accommodated from say a dozen to four times that number of persons. 8 Again, when he went to cultivate

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the soil, he did not go by himself, taking perhaps his son or sons, as a European would. No, when he went he went with the commune. It was not his motion, but the motion of a body of people, whom the chief apparently led, while instinctively following the democratic desire. Men and women, boys and girls, all went together, as to a picnic, cheerful, happy and contented, and it was a pleasant sight to see them ranged in rows, and digging with their ko-es (wooden Maori spades), as they rose and fell, and their limbs and bodies swayed rhythmically to the working of the ko, and the chorus of an ancient hymn, invoking a blessing on the fruit of their labour. Still a large yield was not always a benefit, for it would sometimes induce friends and relations to come from a distance and eat the commune out of house and home.

In the same way our communist was quite unable to keep any new thing, especially in the way of clothing. Did he sell a pig, and get a blanket in payment, his father presently paid him a visit, and was seen returning with the blanket draped round his person, and if he sold some kits or corn for a shirt, a pair of trousers, and a hat, his cousin would come from five or six miles away, and the hat would be given to him. Of course, the custom cut both ways, for when reduced in circumstances he, too, made calls upon his friends at auspicious times. But the system he lived under discouraged individual effort, and those who tried individually

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to better themselves under it sooner or later gave up the attempt, and it was not until the example of the early settlers had fully influenced another generation, stimulating it to further action, and the Native Land Courts had individualised their holdings, that the ice was broken, and the communistic element in their system of civilisation that had stunted enterprise and retarded material interests was greatly diminished, though not entirely removed.

But when it came to fighting, the Maori's communism helped him. When summoned to do battle for the commonwealth he instantly obeyed without conscription or recruiting, and with no swearing in, no shirking, no grumbling, he appeared at his post a trained soldier, active, willing and determined, in an army where courts-martial were unnecessary and unknown. He was animated by a living principle, he thought not of himself, but the body he belonged to was ever in his mind. The spirit that was in him inspired the whole, giving fierceness to the war dance, zest to the tuki 9 of the war canoe, and proved a powerful factor in war. Communism in war did not extend to the department of the Commander-in-Chief. The

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General was free to do his own thinking, and to issue his own orders, and implicit obedience was rendered to him.

With certain exceptions the Maori held his land as a member of the tribe. In the matter of this, his real estate, the communistic element in his system of civilisation was well developed, and with the exception of slaves and refugees there was not a landless person in the community. As time advanced, and posterity increased, lands that had belonged to one passed into the possession of many persons, for after several generations there would be a hapu, where one man had settled. This tendency was counteracted on the other hand by acts of partition or individualisation within the tribal boundaries; fresh boundaries would follow; moreover sales of land for valuable consideration were by no means unknown. The subject of ancient land tenure amongst the Maoris is interesting and instructive, and would in itself fill a small volume if treated exhaustively. Their claims were often singularly complex, and very far-reaching. Thus Ngaiterangi, in the early days, claimed and obtained payment for Tawhitirahi pa when a European bought the land there, and this notwithstanding they had not ventured to occupy it for three hundred years, and the natives living near the place approved of the claim; but not until they had been paid for the full value of the land.

A slave was the property of the person who captured him in war. A master could kill his

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slave. A husband could beat his wife. A man might have more than one wife. The women worked more than the men, and had to do the more laborious work, such as carrying heavy burdens, which the men never did, for they had tapued their backs. When Christianity diminished the power of the priests, they did not strive against the innovation. Many of them became converted, and the others appeared to accept without question the change in the mind of the commune.


This is a section of Ngatiporou tribe whose country extends from a point a little south of the East Cape to Potikirua, west of Point Lottin a few miles. From these points their boundaries running inland converge rapidly towards each other until they meet. Their territory, therefore, is triangular in form. We have seen how this country was occupied by the aborigines, and how Ngaetuari came from Whangara and conquered and settled upon the greater portion of it, and it will be remembered that the Ngaetuari were Hawaikians of Takitumu canoe.

About sixty years after the Ngaetuari had settled themselves, Tuwhakairiora appeared on the scene and altered the face of affairs in that district to such an extent that the tribe living there now owes its origin to him, and bears his name. Tuwhakairiora was also of Takitumu extraction, and it is of the rather remarkable

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Takitumuan movement that was made under him that I would tell. But first I will briefly outline the Takitumuan prelude to our story from the landing at Whangara to the time of our hero.

We have seen that Paikea, the captain of Takitumu, settled the immigrants at Whangara, after which he sailed for Hawaiki in another canoe, and so disappears from our view. About one hundred and twenty years after Paikea's time, the chiefs of the colony at Whangara were the brothers Pororangi and Tahu. The latter went south to Kaikoura, but Pororangi, from whom the Ngatiporou are named, lived and died at Whangara.

When Pororangi died, Tahu returned from Kaikoura to mourn for him, bringing a number of slaves with him. He married his brother's widow, and the issue of the union was Ruanuku, a son, to whom Tahu gave the party of slaves; which party became a tribe, bearing the name of Ruanuku, their master. After some years, Tahu returned to the other island, taking his son with him, and thus these two are removed from the scene; but the Ngatiruanuku were left behind, to play an important part in it.

Pororangi had two sons, Hau and Ue. The latter took the country southward from Turanga. The former and his descendants went northward, settling from time to time in various places, nor stopped until they had claimed the land as far as Taumata Apanui, near Torere. Here, however, the tide of success

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was met and rolled back by the Whanau Apanui, a tribe of Hawaiki-Awa descent. About two hundred and seventy years after the colony had been planted at Whangara, Poromata, a descendant of Hau, took an active part in the movement northward, and settled at Whareponga, where Ngatiruanuku, who had become a numerous tribe, had arrived before him, and here they all lived for a time, beside the aboriginal Uepohatu tribe, of whom I have already made mention.

Now, Poromata was not a young man. He had several grown-up sons and daughters, who, like himself were of a tyrannical disposition. They despised and oppressed the Ngatiruanuku as if they had been the slaves brought from Kaikoura, one hundred and fifty years before; and, ignoring the fact that they were but a few individuals surrounded by a numerous people, they plundered the best of everything the Ngatiruanuku produced, and forcibly took their women from them, and they were particularly fond of seizing the best fish from the Ruanuku canoes when they returned from fishing out at sea. At length Ngatiruanuku, goaded beyond endurance, conspired to slay the old man and his sons, and they, by surprise, attacked them while fishing, and killed them all except one son, who escaped, and nothing more is heard of him in this story.

At this time Haukotore, a brother of Poromata, lived near by at Matakukai. He was related to Ngatiruanuku by marriage, and was

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on better terms with them than his brother had been. He did not attempt to avenge the death of his brother, or seek assistance for that purpose; neither did he retire from among his brother's murderers. His behaviour was altogether pusillanimous, as for many years he remained on sufferance in the presence of his natural foes, even after they had refused his request to be permitted to establish a tapu where his brother had been slain.

Very different was the spirit that animated Atakura, the youngest of Poromata's daughters. She was at Whareponga when her father and brothers were killed, and was spared by Ngatiruanuku. Her anger, however, was not appeased by their forbearance. All the thirst for revenge that was lacking in her soulless uncle was, as it were, added to her own thirst, and concentrated in her burning breast. She left Whareponga immediately, and went to Uawa, where she married for the avowed purpose of raising up a son to avenge the murder. Thence she and her husband, whose name was Ngatihau, went to Opotiki, to which place he belonged, and there a son was born whom they named Tuwhakairiora, from the odd circumstance that an uncle of his at Waiapu had lately been buried alive (or rather put in a trough made for the purpose, and placed up in a tree, for that was a mode of sepulture). From his birth Tuwhakairiora was consecrated to the office of an avenger of blood. Atakura and her husband lived at Opotiki many years, and had

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a family of several children. It was there that Tuwhakairiora received the education necessary to a chief, and the military training that should fit him for the part that he was destined to perform. He was not like other young chiefs, for all knew, and he knew, that he had a mission to which he had been dedicated from the womb, and it was proverbial how his lusty embyronic struggles had been welcomed by his mother as a token of manhood and power to slay her father's murderers.

Thus it was that our young chief, when he came to a man's estate, was the centre to whom a wide circle of adventurous spirits looked and longed for warlike excitement. Nor did he fail to take advantage of this feeling, by visiting from tribe to tribe and increasing his prestige and popularity. At length he determined to take action. For this purpose he moved with his parents to Te Kaha, Oreti, and Whangaparaoa, living at each place awhile, ingratiating themselves with the inhabitants, and drawing recruits to their cause. From the place last named his parents passed on to Kawakawa, leaving the rest of the party at Whangaparaoa, where Kahupakari, Atakura's first cousin, received them joyfully and gave her several hundred acres of land to live on. Kahupakari's father had taken part in the Ngaetuere conquest sixty years before.

Shortly after this, Tuwhakairiora followed his parents to Kawakawa, travelling by himself. On this journey he saw Ruataupare for the first

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time, and married her at Wharekahika in the masterful manner already described. She was the daughter of the principal chief of that district, which was peopled at that time by aboriginal tribes. Our hero required something then to soothe his feelings, for he had just hurried away then through wounded pride from Whangaparaoa, where he had met his match in a young woman of rank named Hinerupe, towards whom he had conducted himself in a plantation where they were working with a freedom so unbecoming that she met him with her wooden spade, and hit him a blow on the jaw that sent him off. The plantation is called Kauae (jaw) to this day.

From Kawakawa Tuwhakairiora made an excursion to the East Cape, whence for the first time he viewed the Ngatiruanuku country, and doubtless thought upon his mission and revolved in his mind the task before him. But he was not to get vengeance yet, nor indeed for many years. Although he knew it not, he was even then in a path that would lead to a train of events fated to alter his position, and change him from a wayfaring adventurer to the warlike head of a powerful tribe. He turned and retraced his steps. He was alone and his dog followed him. Passing near Hekawa pa, two men, Wahia and Whata appeared, and killed his dog. He slew them both, then, putting his dead dog on his back, he went on his way; but was presently overtaken by a number of men from Hekawa. He turned and killed Pito, the

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foremost, but others pressed on, and after slaying several, he took refuge on a mound that is an island at high water. The people of Hekawa surrounded the little mound and kept him there. In this position he was seen by his younger brother, Hukarere, and recognised by his red dogskin mat. His brother, who was fishing in a canoe, came instantly to the rescue. Tuwhakairiora descended the hill, cut his way through his enemies, killing Waipao, and escaped to the canoe. That place is still called Waipao. Thus Hukarere saved his brother's life, and thus Tuwhakairiora became incensed against the Ngaetuere, and he determined to make war upon them. He sent, therefore to his followers to muster and to come to him, and they quickly responded, especially at Opotiki, where he was so well known and admired. It was with these troops that he conquered the Ngaetuere.

Now we have seen that Ngaetuere were a tribe of Takitumu descent who, sixty years before, had driven out the aboriginal Ngaoko, who were of Toi extraction. More than thirty years before that time the Ngaoko had emerged from the mountain forest of Tututohara and destroyed the aboriginal tribe named Ruawaipu, that occupied the coast from Pukeamaru to Maraehara, and killed their chief, whose name was Tamatea Arahia. Tamatea Upoko, the daughter of this chief, escaped with other refugees to Whangara, where Ngatiporou, of Takitumu, received and sheltered them.

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Tamatea Upoko married Uekaihau, of Ngatiporou, and in due course three sons of that marriage, Uetaha, Tamokoro and Tahania, grew up. The Ruawaipu element had, meanwhile, so strengthened itself among the Ngatiporou, that the three brothers named were able to raise an army of Ngatiporou and half-caste Ruawaipu-Ngatiporou sufficiently numerous to justify them in attacking Ngaoko, for the purpose of revenge and to regain the lost territory. They set out, and on their march were attacked at Uawa (Tologa Bay), by Te Aetanga Hauiti, who failed to bar their passage. Again at Tawhiti mountain they were attacked by the Wahineiti, and again they forced their way against those who would have stopped them. After this they marched unmolested through the Waiapu country, belonging to the Wahineiti, 10 an aboriginal tribe who were a section of Te Iwi Pohatu a Maui. Having passed the East Cape the army, whom from this time I shall speak of as Ngaetuere, travelled through Horoera and Hekawa without meeting a soul, the Ngaoko had evidently fallen back to some vantage ground to await their attack. When they arrived at Kawakawa, they found the Ngaoko posted in two pas, one at Karakatuwhero, the other, Tihi o Manono, at Kopuaponamu, was the largest they had. A scouting party of the invaders fell in with a similar party of the people of the place, and cut them

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Wood Pigeon.

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off, killing the chief, Tuteuruao. Then the Ngaoko came out of their pas in full force, and attacked Ngatuere in the open field, when the latter by stratagem led Ngaoko into Awatere Gorge, and, getting them at a disadvantage, inflicted severe loss upon them, and killed their chief, Tangikaroro. At the next engagement Ngaoko were again defeated, and another chief named Rakaimokonui fell. At the third battle Ngaoko were completely worsted, and fled for the first time before their enemies. On this occasion the chiefs Manoho and Te Awhenga were slain. On the same day the great pa Tihi o Manono was taken by assault. Ngaoko rallied, however, at the pa at Karakatuwhero, and finally at Tarapahure, another pa at Pukeamaru, but the three brothers pursued them and took these pas also, and this completed the conquest of the tribe and country. The remnant of the Ngaoko became slaves called Ngatirakaimatapu; but they intermarried with the conquerors, and became absorbed by them.

This, then, was the tribe of Ngaetuere, against whom Tuwhakairiora was about to declare war. After a lapse of sixty years, the component parts of the tribe had consolidated into a homogeneous whole, of which the elements were probably half aboriginal and half immigrant in character. And the force, chiefly Whakatohea, that was coming against them, and destined to overthrow and absorb them--what was it? We have already seen that the people it was drawn

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from were a tribe of aborigines with but a strain of immigrant blood in its veins, and this is the material, united and cemented together by time, of which the Tuwhakairiora tribe is formed. From that time, more than three hundred years ago, the tribe has always been ruled by chiefs of the same distinguished Ngatiporou family.

Tuwhakairiora crossed the Awatere with his forces, and engaged and utterly defeated the Ngaetuere at Hekawa. Then he established himself at Kawakawa, and built a pa called Okauwharetoa at Awatere. Some of the Ngaetuere were now subject to him, but others were not. About this time some Ngaetumoana people killed Te Rangihekeiho of Ngaetuiti, of which tribe was Ruataupare, Tuwhakairiora's wife; this was a sufficient excuse for Tuwhakairiora to wage war against them. He fought them at the battle of Whanakaimaro, at Matakawa, and destroyed the tribe, driving the remnant off westward towards Whangaparaoa. Thus one tribe of aborigines disappeared from the district. Then another tribe of aborigines became uneasy at the presence of the invaders, and insulted them. These were the Pararake. War followed, and the battle of Pipiwhakau was fought, where the aboriginal chief Whakapuru te Rangi was slain, and his tribe was defeated and driven to Whangaparaoa. The aboriginal Ngaetuiti were allowed to remain intact because the conqueror had married into their tribe when he came from Opotiki, but they fell into a very subordinate position;

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nevertheless, at their desire some of the Pararake were allowed to remain in the district. It happened that Tuwhakairiora was taking a wife to himself at Wharekahika, his brother Hukarere was similarly engaged at Whangaparaoa. He married Hinerupe, who had used her spade so well, the granddaughter of Tamakoro, one of the three brothers who led Ngaetuere from Whangara against Ngaoko. At the time of the marriage Uetaha, her father, was the chief of a large section of Ngaetuere. This alliance favoured the designs of Tuwhakairiora by neutralising at the time of active hostilities a great number of the Ngaetuere. It enabled him to conquer the tribe in detail, instead of having them all against him at one time. Not that Tuwhakairiora acted treacherously towards the Tamakoro section of Ngaetuiti. The trouble that came they brought upon themselves. The half-brothers of Hinerupe were jealous of some advantages granted to her by Tuwhakairiora, who was her brother-in-law, and they cursed her; this, of course could not be overlooked, and action was determined upon. Tuwhakairiora sent to friends he had made at Waiapu and Uawa, asking them to come and assist him in the forthcoming struggle, and in response the chiefs Umuariki and Kautaharua appeared with their respective followings. In this manner a considerable force was collected, and the campaign of Waihakia took place, resulting in the entire defeat of the Tamakoro party, whom the conqueror reduced to a state

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not exactly of slavery, but of very great subordination.

I have now told how the tribe of Tuwhakairiora was planted and grew up on the soil where it nourishes at the present time. The war had commenced with an attack made upon Tuwhakairiora while he was visiting his cousin Kahupakiri at Kawakawa. The descendants of the people who made that attack are now incorporated in the general tribe of Tuwhakairiora, under the name of Te Wakeoneone.

Many years had elapsed before these conquests were all completed, and affairs connected with them consolidated sufficiently to permit Tuwhakairiora to turn his hand to that to which he had been ordained. At length, however, a time arrived when he felt able to discharge the duty imposed, and preparations were accordingly made to assemble a force to chastise the murderers of his grandfather. From Opotiki, where he was so popular, he easily obtained as many men as he wanted. With these added to his own troops, he set sail in a fleet of canoes for the country of Ngatiruanuku, where one morning before daybreak he surprised and carried by assault Tonganiu, a pa, and killed Kahutapu, the chief of that place. Then he fought the battle of Hikutawatawa in the open, and took two other pas called Ureparaheka and another. Many were killed in these pas, the people who escaped fled inland, leaving all their land and property to the victors. Tuwhakairiora then considered that

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ample revenge had been obtained, and he returned home to Kawakawa, leaving his great-uncle Haukotore and other relations, who had continued to live there after the murder, in full possession of the land.

Mate, the sister of Atakura, heard at Turanga of Tuwhakairiora's campaign, and that two or three pas had fallen, and said, "My sister's side has been avenged, but mine is not avenged," and she sent for Pakanui, her grandson, to return from a war he was prosecuting in the south, and directed him to wage war against the remaining portion of Ngatiruanuku, and against their allies, the Wahineiti of Pororangi, who lived at Waipiro.

Pakanui obeyed his grandmother, and fitted out a number of canoes for an expedition, and for want of warriors he manned them with a force so inadequate to the object intended, that he devised the extraordinary ruse of taking the women and children in the canoes, in order to deceive Ngatiruanuku as to the nature of the flotilla, and for the rest he hoped that some accident might befriend him. When Pakanui and his party arrived at Waipiro, they landed there and camped on the shore. To all appearance they were travellers en route; the presence of the women and children quite put the people there off their guard; but the strangers could not remain there indefinitely; their chief knew this, and was puzzled what action next to take. He could not send for Tuwhakairiora's assistance, for his enterprise

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was a sort of set-off against what that chief had done. He could not attack the enemy openly without courting defeat, while to return home would be to make himself a laughing stock, and nothing had happened, or was likely to happen, to assist him. In this dilemma he racked his brains, and an idea occurred to him, upon which, for want of a better, he determined to act. He told each man to make a hand net, such as was used for catching small fish among the rocks on the seashore; with the help of the women this task was soon accomplished. Then he distributed his men along the shore in open order, a little time before the right time of tide for fishing, and they were all engaged in fishing at the many little channels in the rocks through which the tide flowed, some of them made artificially, and each belonging to some man in the neighbouring pa. 11

The owners of these fishing channels did not admire the freedom of the strangers, and they mustered to occupy their private fishing ground. At the right time of tide they presented themselves in a body, each man with his hand net, and their chief Rangirakaikura at their head. The chief found that Pakanui had appropriated his stream, for Paka had noted beforehand which was the chief's stream, and said to him,

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"And where am I to fish?" Paka promptly drew his net out of the water, and replied, "Fish here," and he stood beside Rangi as he fished. This little pantomime was enacted all along the line, until Pakanui saw all his men distributed like Thugs, each man standing close to a man of the other side, apparently looking at the fishing, really awaiting the pre-arranged signal that Paka was to make, the tide meanwhile washing high over their feet. Suddenly the signal was given; then each man of Paka's side simultaneously drew a mere, attached to his foot under water, and throwing his net over the head of his enemy, entangled him in it, while he killed him with the mere. In this manner Pakanui's party killed one hundred fighting men, including the chief, and struck such a terror into the remainder of the enemy that Pakanui was able to follow up the success effectively. This affair is known as Te Ika Koraparua, which may be freely rendered, "Two fish in one net:" the kehe and the man. It took place near Tangitu stream, between Akuaku and Whareponga. The Ngatiruanuku fled inland, whither they were followed and finally destroyed. Thus Mate was avenged for the death of Poromata, her father, by the extinction of the remnant of Ruanuku people whom Tuwhakairiora had spared, but the Wahineiti tribe remained in full force south of Waipiro stream, being too numerous for Pakanui to venture to disturb them. However, he settled on the land he had conquered, and lived there

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several years, at the end of which he was compelled by the hostility of the Wahineiti to obtain the aid of Tuwhakairiora, who came with a strong force and crushed the Wahineiti at the battle of Rorohukatai, fought on Waipiro beach (so named because the brains of men were mingled there with the froth of the tide), and by taking their three pas, Poroporo, Turangamoahu and Maungakowhai. At the end of the war Tuwhakairiora returned home, whence he sent Iritekura, his niece, to occupy the conquered territory. She went with her family to Waipiro about three hundred and thirty years ago. She lived and died there, and her descendants who bear her name, live there at the present day.

But Iritekura, who founded the tribe of that name, is not the only Maori woman whose name figures in the history of her race.

It was a woman, Torere, who swam ashore from Tainui canoe, and founded the Ngaitai tribe.

It was the woman, Muriwai, who led the Ngatiawa to Whakatane in Mataatua canoe.

It was a woman, Atakura, that caused several pas to be destroyed out of revenge.

It was a woman, Mate, that caused a tribe to be annihilated from feelings of revenge.

It was a woman, Hinewaha, whose thirst for revenge enabled her to raise the Ngatitematera at the Thames, and incite them to make war on Ngamarama at Katikati, because her brothers had been slain in battle by the latter.

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It was a woman, Ruataupare, who invaded the Wahineiti at Tokomaru, and took that country from them, and founded a tribe that bears her name now.

It was a woman, Moenga, who led the Amazons at the battle of Mangatara, and routed the enemy.

But if there have been women political, women revengeful, and military women, amongst the Maoris, there have also been merciful women, and women of a peaceful disposition.

Of such was the woman Kurauhirangi, who intervened on the field of battle and made peace between Te Roroterangi and Ngaeterangi at Maketu, and terminated a war that had lasted many years, and had probably cost thousands of lives, for great efforts had been made by many tribes to recover that place from Ngaeterangi.

When Te Rohu, a chief of Hauraki, influenced by revenge, took the large pa at Tauranga called Te Papa, and slew its unfortunate people, it was a woman, one of his wives (whose name I regret I have mislaid), who persuaded him to relinquish his intention to destroy Otumoetai, and to be satisfied with the utu obtained. She saved the lives in that large pa of perhaps two thousand persons, and returned home with her husband.

Now observe the sequel. It happened within a short time after, that Te Waharoa urged Ngaeterangi to help him in the approaching

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campaign against the Hauraki tribes at Haowhenua. They responded to the call, and sent a contingent of about two hundred men, who all returned home without fighting because they had received a message from that woman before the battle of Taumatawiwi asking if they remembered Otumoetai. 12

Lastly, it was a woman, Mapihiterangi, who stopped the chronic state of warfare between Ngaeterangi and the remnant of Ngatiranginui. She was a Ngaeterangi woman of rank, who, unknown to her own tribe, passed over to the enemy's tribe, and married its guerilla chief.

And it was quite a common thing in ancient Maori life and history for women of rank to sacrifice their own feelings and all they held dear, and marry stranger chiefs of other tribes, from whom in times of public emergency assistance was required.

1   I would not imply that this tribe has not a strain of Hawaikian blood; no doubt it has, and like some others it knows more about its Hawaikian ancestors than its aboriginal lineage. This is due to causes I have already mentioned.
2   The details of this insult will not bear publication.
3   The toetoe(called by Europeans tuitui grass) was used for thatch.
4   In the story of Te Waharoa, written twenty-nine years ago, though not published until the year following, I have placed the conquest of Tauranga by Ngaeterangi at 'about one hundred and fifty years ago.' My unit then for a generation was twenty years. My unit now is thirty years. Moreover, that was written one generation ago.
5   In Maori warfare it was absolutely necessary to fight naked, and with short hair, in order to give the enemy no means of catching hold of the body; for the same reason oil or fat, when obtainable, was smeared oyer the body before going into action.
6   The tradition says that they saw Cook's people balancing poles, on their chins. The poles were balanced vertically, one end in the air, the other on the chin. I have heard this tradition more than once from old chiefs now deceased, not one of whom could give me any explanation. Could it have been that Cook and his officers-were seen taking the sun with old-fashioned elongated quadrants? or were the marines seen in profile with their arms at the 'carry,' and that thus an impression was produced on the Maoris? or were the men really amusing themselves in the manner described? Doubtless the long voyage necessitated some amusements, and perhaps, this curious one was extemporised.
7   To muru a man was to strip him of his personal property or some of it, or communist property in which he had an interest might be muru-ed.
8   More than fifty years ago the missionaries strongly discountenanced the wharepuni system amongst their converts. The Maoris, however, as was quite natural, could not understand their objection. Even their most devoted teachers were unable to appreciate it at first. But time has worked a change. Missionary perseverance, and the example of European civilisation have swept away the old Maori wharepuni. Each little family has now its own separate whare, and these are generally partitioned. The wharepuni of the present generation is a sort of town hall, in which strangers are lodged when visiting the tribe, and does not represent the old communism of the past.
9   To tuki was to give time to rowers in a canoe. To tuki a war canoe required tact and skill. The chiefs prided themselves upon the proper performance of this function. Passing to and fro upon the narrow thwarts between the rows of rowers (itself an acrobatic feat), the kai-tuki gave the time and inspired the crew by words, exclamations, short speeches, snatches of song, all delivered to time, with gesture, attitude, and motions of his weapon, also in time. In very large canoes there were sometimes two kai-tukis, the senior of whom promenaded the after part of the vessel, while the other occupied the fore part.
10   The Wahineiti of Waiapu are not to be confounded with the Wahineiti of Waipiro. The latter was a small tribe of Pororangi origin. The former was a section of the aborigines.
11   In many parts of the East Coast, south of Hick's Bay, a limestone formation prevails, the strata of which, tilted at a high angle, run in parellel lines from the land to the sea. At the coast these lines of rocks are cut off by the waves, and because their cleavage is at right angles with their strata, a serrated and fluted shore line filled with parallel channels running from high water mark to low water, is formed. Up these channels the kehe fish passes in search of food with the flood, and returns to the sea with ebb tide.
12   The return home of Ngaeterangi without fighting at Taumatawiwi, is not mentioned in the story of Te Waharoa. I had heard of that return at the time I wrote that hook, from a man who was a slave in the Haowhenua pa. All he could say was that Ngaeterangi had turned back at Horotiu River, without crossing it, and therefore, without reaching the field of Taumatawiwi. I hesitated, however, to attach historical weight to an improbable and inexplicable story. I have since learned from Ngaeterangi chiefs now deceased, that the story of the slave was correct, and that the woman's message was the cause of the extraordinary proceeding.

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