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THE first two chapters of the present work were written so long ago as 1840, and forwarded by letter to England, with a view of furnishing information as to the character of the Aborigines of New Zealand, about whom so very little was then known to the British public. Like many other letters, however, from New Zealand, these never reached their destination; and other occupations prevented me from recurring to the subject until circumstances led me to re-visit Britain, when, to beguile a few of the tedious hours of a five months' homeward voyage, I again transcribed my manuscript, believing that the information it affords may still be found useful, notwithstanding the number of works which have already been published on the same subject.
After delineating, as accurately as possible, the mental peculiarities of these Aborigines as existing
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in a state of nature, I have traced some of the more prominent and important changes which European intercourse has wrought upon them, and have followed up these observations by suggesting practical measures for the improvement of their condition.
As New Zealand is now attracting so much attention as a field of colonization, it is hoped that the information regarding the resources of the country, and the important measures lately introduced by the local government in restoring to the Aborigines the right of disposing of their lands to Europeans,--abolishing customs, and establishing Free Trade,--may also prove useful to those who are interested in the colony.
London, July, 1845.
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INTRODUCTION........... Page 1
DESCRIPTION OF THE ABORIGINES OF NEW ZEALAND, AND THE MEANS OF ADVANCING THEM IN CIVILIZATION.
Manners and Customs--Tapu, with Illustrations of its Application-- Robbing, as a Punishment for Offences--Claim of Property in Shipwrecks--Laws of Descent of Property on Death--Mode of Salutation--Crying for Joy--Physical Appearance.....9
Domestic Affections--Courtship--Marriage Ceremonies--Chastity-- Prostitution--Sense of Decency--Dress--Tobacco--Early Maturity--Children described and treatment of--Small number of Children an anomaly--Infanticide, causes of--Euronesians-- Amalgamation with Europeans--Friendship--Want of Affection --Warlike Habits examined and disproved--Illustrations--Indifference to Life--Suicide--Personal Quarrels--Placability, illustrations of--Oaths--Openness of Character--Illustrations--Temperance in Eating--and in use of Spirits--Food--Method of Cooking--Cannibalism--Trading Habits--Illustrations of--Mechanical Talents--Tendency to exaggerate--Vanity--Frequent cause of War--Illustrations--Contrasted with American Indians--
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High Sense of Honour--Instance of--Placidity--Dislike to haste and precipitancy--Formality of Behaviour--Illustrations--Timidity--Hospitality--Generosity--Native Servants give away their Clothes--Native Feasts--Vast quantity of Food consumed, and Articles of value given away--Tribes vie with each other in the costliness and extent of these Entertainments--Manners, kind and gentle--Peacemakers--Liberality not extended to Europeans--Show much sympathy for each other--Ingratitude--Cause of it--Their Behaviour respectful -- Etiquette -- Superstition -- Witchcraft--Power of Imagination--Instances of Death from it-- Sick abandoned--Case of, in E Hongi's Wife--Attuas--Priests'-- Jugglers--Religious tendencies--Observance of the Sabbath-- Missionary success--Bartering Testaments for Pigs--Evils to be apprehended from the teaching of different Sects--Personal Security--Great want of Conscientiousness--Most perceptible in tbe more Civilized--Their Intellect--Oratory--Trading capacities--Eagerness to acquire Knowledge--Letter Writing--Native Language--Native names of places changed by Government-- English Language little known among the Natives--Attempt to teach discouraged by Missionaries--Draught-playing.....32
Recapitulation of the Prominent Features in the Character of the New Zealanders--Hopes of their Improvement, if the means are employed--Reasons for these Expectations--Effects of Colonization--State of Natives before Captain Hobson's Arrival described--Their Respect for our Physical and Moral power--Loss of Moral Power -- Causes which effected it --Treaty of Waitangi--Based on Injustice, and entered into through Ignorance--Bill passed by the Sydney Legislature for effecting a Settlement of Land Claims--A Source of Discontent--Deception practised towards the Natives--Loss of Physical Power--Causes--Robbery of Forsaith, and compromise by Government--Robbery of Settlers at Wangarei--Murders at Roberton's Island--Trial and Execution of Maketu--Exhumation--Another Murderer lodged in Jail, and given up without Trial--Tauranga Massacre--Land Questions--Government purchase Land a second time at Monganui--Results in a Battle between the Tribes--Question of Surplus Land--Government attempt to seize upon it, and Hostile Manifestations on the part of the Natives--Seizure of Surplus Land an Afterthought--Wairau Massacre--Government Attempts to Survey unpurchased Land--Progressive Advancement in Knowledge, and European Customs--Desire for Horses, Cows, &c.--Cultivation--Individual instances of Improvement--Bad Feelings betwixt Natives and
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the Settlers at Cook's Strait caused by acts of the New Zealand Company--Captain Fitzroy's Arrival--Clamours of the Natives to be allowed their Rights of disposing of their Land--Their Opposition to Customs Regulations--Partial Freedom of Selling Land permitted--Its Effects--Native Disturbance--Flag-Staff cut down--Troops sent for -- Free Trade declared, and Restrictions on the Sale of Land removed--Effects of these Measures............103
Improvement of Aborigines--Government has done nothing--Present Protector's Establishment inefficient--Qualifications for the Office of Protector stated--Sub-Protectors--Native Gazette--Its unbounded Influence -- Illustrations -- Should be published in English as well as in Maori--Subjects to be treated of--Adjustment of Land Questions--Of Disputes between Tribes--And between them and the Government--Employment for the Natives--Work suggested--Means of stimulating their Industry pointed out--Flax--Wheat--Barley-- Oats -- Maize -- Anxiety to possess Horses and other Stock--Dress--Oratory---Newspapers--Policy of permitting the exercise of their own Manners and Customs--Schools--Native Justices of the Peace--Foundation of the Power of the Natives--Military Force--Parkhurst Delinquents--Religious Feuds--Church Missionaries versus the Wesleyans--The Bishop of New Zealand--Native Trust Ordinance--Objections to it--Native Exemption Ordinance--Unsworn Testimony Ordinance.............142
CHANGES IN THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE GOVERNMENT, AND THE COLONY CONSIDERED AS A FIELD FOR EMIGRATION.
Change of Policy in the Government, and the hopes now held out to Settlers--Follies of the former Government alluded to--Inducements now held out to Labourers and Capitalists--Cheap Land --Native Sellers and Land Claimants--Prices--Sources of Prosperity--Agriculture--Practical Illustrations--Rearing of Stock --Bees-- Small Farmers -- Speculators -- Capitalists -- Mining Speculations--Copper--Manganese--Tin--Lead--Nickel-- Coal --Rock Salt--Sulphur--Kauri--Tanekaha--Ake--Towai--Dye-woods -- Tanning Barks -- Sarsaparilla -- Kauri Gum --Whale Fishing--Facilities for obtaining Education......187
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Effects of the Free Sales of Land by Natives, and Free Trade in General--Commerce considered--Land Regulations--Wakefield Theory of Colonization inapplicable to New Zealand--Labour and Capital--How regulated--South Australia--Cause of its Failure in the Outset--Concentration--Its Effects--Land Claimants--Labour, how to be supplied--Objection to the undue facility of obtaining Land stated--Its Effects upon the Natives-- Upon the European and General Interests of the Colony--Persons of small Means acquiring large Tracts of Land--Difficulties of doing so--Regulations for purchasing--Commissioner of Land Claims useless, if not injurious--Illustrations--What constitutes a good Evidence of a Purchase--Impolicy of throwing obstacles in the way of the Natives freely disposing of their Land--Proclamation of the Governor permitting the Natives to sell their Land--Memorial by Legislative Council to Secretary of State..................208
Introduction of Free Trade--Conduct of Captain Fitzroy--Prospects of the Settlers--Cheap living--Prices of Provisions--Rents--Wages -- Taxation to replace Customs abolished -- Ordinance considered--Not duly enforced--Defects--Common Informers-- Tax acceptable to Colonists--Opposed by Government Officers-- Their object--Statement of Revenue--Sum too large for the Purposes to which it is applied--Contributions in aid from British Treasury--Hitherto done Evil--Sources from whence increased Colonial Revenue could be obtained if applied to Purposes of general benefit--Wholesale Spirit-sellers--Distillers-- Land-Tax--Objections to it..........237
No. 1.--Rev. Mr. Turton's Letters to Dr. Selwyn .... 253
No. 2.--Protest against the Native Trust Bill ...... 275
No. 3.--Land Regulations............. 277
No. 4.--Property Rate Ordinance.......... 284