1940 - Mathew, Felton. The Founding of New Zealand: The Journals of Felton Mathew, First Surveyor-General of New Zealand, and his Wife, 1840-1847. - Chapter I. Captain Hobson's Mission - The Treaty Of Waitangi, p 19-43

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  1940 - Mathew, Felton. The Founding of New Zealand: The Journals of Felton Mathew, First Surveyor-General of New Zealand, and his Wife, 1840-1847. - Chapter I. Captain Hobson's Mission - The Treaty Of Waitangi, p 19-43
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[On January 18th, 1840, H. M. S. Herald (Captain Nias) sailed from Sydney for New Zealand, conveying Captain Hobson, as Consul and (prospective) Lieutenant-Governor, on his mission to secure the cession of New Zealand in Sovereignty to H. M. the Queen. The officers who accompanied him were Lt. Willoughby Shortland, R. N., Police Magistrate; George Cooper, acting Colonial Treasurer; Felton Mathew, acting Surveyor General; James Stuart Freeman, private Secretary; Samuel Edward Grimstone, clerk; Sergt. Ward, Corpl. Lewis, and Privates Moore and Hancock of the N. S. W. Mounted Police; and three servants, Monk, McLean and Webbe. --Ed.]


H. M. S. Herald, At Sea, 21st January, 1840--...

Various circumstances occurred to delay our departure on Saturday, long after the time we anticipated. The ship, however, got under weigh and ran down with the ebb tide as far as Spring Cove, where she anchored. I lunched with Lord on board the Argyle... and then went on

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board the Druid 1 with Mr. Shortland. After remaining there about an hour, we started in the Druid's cutter, a fine boat, and had to beat down to the ship, a task which occupied us three hours. It was blowing very fresh and, but for my poncho, I should have been thoroughly wetted. We got on board at half past six, and found a very nice dinner prepared for us, to which we sat down with considerable appetite. In about half an hour Captain Hobson arrived, and we then immediately got under weigh and stood out between the heads, the wind blowing fresh and a heavy sea on. I stood it very well untill about 10 o'clock and then turned into my cot sick and sorry. Since that time I have been in a state of the most abject misery.

5 p.m. Having written thus far I was compelled to shut up my desk and hurry on deck. It has been blowing very fresh ever since we left Port Jackson untill after noon today when the wind abated and we are now sliding through the water at about 4 knots. We made 80 miles in the first night, 199 miles the next day and 190 yesterday and are not now more than 600 miles from North Cape.... The weather has been perfectly lovely, and oh, the comfort of a man of war over a merchant vessel!! The quiet, the order and cleanliness are admirable. I have most ample attendance--the greatest attention and kindness we all receive from Captain Nias. We live very well, and altogether nothing can be more comfortable. This ship is admirably managed. Even Captain Hobson, a critic, of course, in nautical matters, says he is delighted, and compares her with the Druid, very much to the disadvantage of the latter. Captain Nias makes himself very agreeable and certainly does everything possible to contribute to our comforts. We are agreeably disappointed in him....

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22nd January. -- ...The weather is beautiful. The breeze sprang up again yesterday afternoon and we have made nearly 150 miles, so that we are within 500 of the Three Kings, and expect, if the winds last, to sight the land on Saturday....

23rd January. -- ...We are slipping fast through the water towards our destination. I have been this morning reading the Proclamations which are to appear in this week's Gazette, 2 and two which are to be published by us in New Zealand; I suppose also that we shall be gazetted in due form in the Gazette of this week. I should like to see it, and, of course, you will bring it with you....

Friday, 24th January. --Eheu! Carrisima mia, here we are tumbling about in a calm--yesterday afternoon the wind dropped, and since that we have been almost motionless, but with a long swell from S. W., which makes it very unpleasant below; though on deck it is delightful.... I begin to fear that we shall be some time in the ship, for it appears more than probable that it will be necessary to circumnavigate the Northern Island; at least, Port Nicholson must be visited, and when there the probability is that we shall go through the Straits and round along the West Coast....

Sunday, 26th January. -- ...We have a nice little breeze, which carries us quietly on, and by tomorrow morning we hope to sight the Three Kings, which are the

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Islands off the North Cape. I find from conversation with Captain Hobson that we are to circumnavigate the whole of the islands, and touch at every Settlement.... I must, however, make the best of it, and if things go on well, we still hope to be back at the Bay by the end of February. ... There is an excellent trait in Hobson, he is so fond of his wife and family and so desirous of having them with him. I am sure it will not be long before he sends for them. He told me this morning he should not await the arrival of his house from England.

Monday, 27th January, 1840. --At day-light this morning the Three Kings were visible from the deck, and shortly after we got sight of the mainland, as we must call the Northern Island, by way of distinction. The appearance of the islands is very bold and beautiful, and from the summit of the northernmost a mass of smoke is issuing which must arise from a volcano....

6 p. m. A current is setting us fast towards the land, and it is quite extraordinary to watch its appearance changing every moment.... They are hauling up the chain cable--symptom of anchoring--though we shall not reach the Bay probably before Wednesday.

Tuesday, 28th January. --We have doubled the North Cape, which is a fine bluff bold promontory, the land behind it falling so low as to give the Cape the appearance of an island.... The weather is fine, but we have scarcely a breath of wind, which makes it very tedious--for, as we have so long a task before us, I am anxious to get to our destination, and to lose as little time as possible....

I never knew a man so sanguine as Cooper is, of the success of our New Zealand undertaking. He says it is the tide in our affairs, which is sure to lead on to fortune, and has embraced his present situation with precisely the same feeling as myself--namely, to hold no faith with the scoundrel Government which has used us so vilely, but to

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make use of them for our own purposes and throw them off as soon as it suits our convenience. For my own part, when you join me, dearest, I shall feel perfectly independant, and will cut them in a moment if they do not behave well. I have made up my mind to buy as much land as I can possibly find money to pay for, and if that do not prove a fortune to me in four or five years I am much mistaken. Meantime, very little will serve to support us, whose wants are so moderate....

Wednesday, 29 th January, 1840. --About midnight we reached the entrance of the Bay, but there was not a breath of wind, and we have merely drifted with the tide just inside. We are lying motionless on the water, the surface of which is smooth as glass. The first appearance of the Bay is striking and rather picturesque, though bearing a general resemblance to the coast of New Holland. The outline of the Hills is rather more rugged and broken than usual, the shores deeply indented and precipitous, partially clothed with trees, and here and there are patches of ground cleared and cultivated by the Natives, with a few huts and occasionally a canoe to be seen paddling along shore. There are several apparently good cottages visible on the Northern shore. At the head of the Bay is Busby's House, which is apparently a very good brick cottage with a Verandah, and distinguished by a flagstaff, on which the Union Jack is flying. 3 A little to the left again, looking up the Bay, is the Missionary Station of Paihia, which appears to consist of a great number of neat-looking cottages ranged along the shore,

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the space intervening between the water and the precipitous foot of the Hills being very small. Just beyond this the harbour, that is to say, the anchorage, is shut in by Kororareka Point, which rises abruptly from the water, and on its summit is another flagstaff; with the French Tricolor flying. The sight of this made our Governor look rather blue, for he begins to fear that the French may have anticipated us, and that perhaps L'Artemise is lying at anchor in the harbour. If it should prove so, Lord help us, for if it came to a squabble L'Artemise would sink us in a moment....

I should think that Busby will come on board in the course of the morning, and probably some of the Missionaries. Indeed, if a sea breeze springs up and we should reach the anchorage, we shall, I dare say, have more visitors than we wish. Hobson is much annoyed, because Nias refuses to salute Busby when he comes on board, which, as he has been always accustomed to receive the honour, will, of course, mortify him. Hobson, very good-naturedly and very considerately, says that now, just as Busby's power is about to be extinguished, he would rather salute him with 20 guns than be the means of making him feel his altered position. The proper number of Guns for a Resident is eight. This shews good feeling on the part of our Governor, and bad taste, to say the least of it, on the part of the Captain. It is mortifying and degrading a man, when he might do him honour at no expense or trouble to himself.

Thursday, 30th January, 1840, 7 a. m. --At Eleven O'clock before noon yesterday we dropt anchor in Kororareka Bay, where we are now lying. The scenery becomes very picturesque as you advance up the harbour, the bays and inlets being deep and numerous, the hills broken and deeply indented, and the verdure fresh and varied, although

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the general appearance of the land conveys an idea (and a very just one) of great sterility.

Shortly after we anchored we were visited by three of the missionaries and by Mr. Busby, and our whole morning was occupied in parleying with them. Of the former, two were little unfortunate looking specimens of humanity, evidently having a call to procure as many of the good things of this life at the expense of others, and with as little trouble to themselves as possible. 4 The third was a fat, vulgar sort of tallow chandlerlike looking fellow yclept B-----, who has resided here 12 years, very much to the benefit of his own person and purse, whatever he may have done for the souls of others. I never saw a more sleek, oily fellow than this, or one whose expression of countenance was more thoroughly vulgar and commonplace. He is, however, a good-natured fellow, gave me a pressing invitation to see him (as indeed did they all) and promised to provide our party with horses to take us to Hokianga. I shall not attempt a further description of these worthies, as I doubt not you will see them yourself. Mr. B----- is to return today accompanied by Mr. Williams, who is head of the Mission, and whom Hobson is very desirous to see.

From Busby we learned that it will not be possible to assemble the Chiefs of the "confederation" 5 under Ten days, so that in all probability we shall be detained here a fortnight, at which I am inexpressibly annoyed, as it will necessarily retard our return.

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After dinner a party of us landed in the ship's cutter, and walked over the Hills at the back of the settlement, and returned through what is called the "Town of Kororareka." Of all the vile holes I ever visited this is certainly the vilest. It consists of some 20 cottages (some tolerably good ones) exclusive of native huts, standing on a shingly bank of very small extent, backed by a nasty, fetid morass, five times as large as the space which the "Town" covers, immediately behind which the hills rise steep and abrupt, covered with coarse fern and dwarf cypress, and looking as barren and inhospitable as can be conceived. Of the Town it is impossible to speak in terms which can convey an adequate idea of my disgust--the half-drunken, impudent devil-may-care sort of look of the European inhabitants, and the squallid, debased appearance of the natives form a tout ensemble which has certainly produced anything but a pleasing impression on me. We visited a powerful Chief in his tent, and found him a very facetious old fellow--but in a considerable state of stew at the arrival of the Man of War, though much pleased at our visit. His hut was very handsomely and ingeniously made of reeds closely matted together, and with a porch or Verandah in front, the rafters of which were highly carved and ornamented, the whole being very well and neatly thatched with a sort of long grass, obtained from the swamp....

Unfortunately it is raining heavily, and promises to be a very wet day, which will materially interfere with our

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operations. The Governor is to be formally installed this afternoon at 2 o'clock, by the reading of his Commission and the Queen's Proclamation. What ceremonies are to be observed on the occasion I know not; for our Captain is such a queer fellow that there is no saying what he will do. His idea of "co-operation" seems to be that of doing as little as possible to promote the success of the expedition. I fear they will make a foolish affair of it. I shall, however, give you an account of the mode of proceeding....

January 30th, 9 p. m. -- ...Tomorrow morning after breakfast we start for Paihia, and from thence the Missionaries will furnish us with horses to carry us to Hokianga, and we do not expect to return before Wednesday.

This morning, or rather noon, we had a visit from Dr. Pompallier, the French Bishop, accompanied by two ecclesiastics of inferior rank. He is a very fine, handsome, intelligent man, perfectly the gentleman in manner and speaking English very tolerably. His conversation and manner impressed me with the conviction of his being a very good man, and he presents a striking contrast in liberality of sentiment and disinterestedness of conduct, with our own missionaries, who, to their disgrace be it spoken, have endeavoured to prejudice the natives against him. As a specimen of the Spirit which actuates him, he interceded with the Governor and Captain Nias, on behalf of an English seaman, now on board an English whaler in the Bay, who is distressingly ill from scurvy, but his Captain refuses to discharge the man, or allow him to leave the ship, although the Bishop had offered to take him into his own house, in order that he might receive the proper attendance and have a chance of recovery. He said very properly and very feelingly, that in a case of that kind, it was not a question of nation or of religion, but that he was ready to do to an Englishman as he would have

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done for a countryman of his own. I have a great reverence for this man, and intend to call on him.

At a few minutes before two o'clock p. m., we left the ship in the pinnace under a salute, and, accompanied by all the officers of the ship {except the Captain), Mr. Busby and two or three of the missionaries, landed on the beach at Korararika. We then walked to the Church, followed by the whole population of the neighbourhood, where the several proclamations and the Governor's Commission were publicly read, 6 a proceeding which occupied about an hour. A declaration was prepared stating what had been done, and which was subscribed by most of the persons present--among others by the Chief, whom we visited yesterday, who marched into Church enveloped in a large blue and crimson boat cloak smiling most benignantly, and pressed up to shake hands with all of us. There were, I suppose, about 300 Europeans present, and probably a hundred natives on the beach; and after the ceremony was over we marched out of the Church and then shouted ourselves hoarse in honour of the Queen and the new Governor. The people accompanied us to the Beach, and we returned on board; they were all highly gratified with the proceeding altogether, and the well disposed among them are willing to co-operate with us to the utmost extent. Captain Nias has behaved scandalously in the business, having offered every impediment and shewn as little respect both to the Governor and to the ceremony itself as possible. Poor

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Hobson is very much annoyed, and I fear we shall have some difficulty in preventing an unpleasant explosion of some kind now, before we leave the ship. We were all surprised to see so many people present, particularly as the notice had been given only this morning.

Mr. Williams the missionary, who has just returned from Waimati, paid us a visit this afternoon. He is a portly looking and intelligent man, and gave us much information as to the state of the country. From his account I fear the natives will not be collected before the end of next week, which will occasion us a terrible delay. We have, however, much to see in crossing the country to Hokianga, so that our time will not be altogether unprofitably employed....

Friday, 31st January, 1840. --Our journey to Hokianga this morning was put a stop to by the weather, which has set in with very heavy squalls from the N. W., and promises two or three days' rain. If, however, it should clear up, I believe we shall start tomorrow....

Saturday, 1st February, 1840. --Yesterday after dinner we sailed up the Kawa-Kawa River, which is one of the principal tributaries of the Bay, and were quite surprised to see the difference between that part of the Bay and this about Korararika. The former is beyond all comparison richer and more picturesque, the hills are lofty, undulating and partially clothed with trees, having the appearance of plantations. In fact, the country altogether is beautiful and far superior to anything we could have conceived from an acquaintance with this part of the Bay only.

Several circumstances have occurred to prevent us from going to Hokianga, and this morning we had a very disagreeable collision with Captain Nias, which put it almost out of our power to go anywhere. We intended to have gone across to Paihia and when there to have made an arrangement with the missionaries for proceeding to Wai-

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mate. When, however, we went to ask for a boat, he refused to let us have one, although he had himself offered us one to be at our service while we are in the harbour. This has, of course, occasioned a breeze; and we have in consequence hired a whaleboat to be at our own disposal while here. After a while we got anchored at Korararika, and after a walk across the Hills enjoyed a delightful bath in a fine, sandy bay. We returned on board to dinner-- since dinner we have had considerable Rows, and Nias has behaved very ill indeed to Captain Hobson. I fear we shall not be able to preserve peace while we are on board. He appears to have been under great restraint during the past fortnight, and now is unable to contain himself any longer....

Monday, 3rd February, 1/2 past 6 a.m. --I was prevented from writing to you at all yesterday, mine own, by a variety of circumstances, and I am now doing so before breakfast, as I am going from the ship for the whole day to explore some of the Bays and look for a site for a Settlement. First and foremost, therefore, I am happy to say that our disturbances are all amicably arranged. Captain Nias is more accommodating than ever, and we are all good friends again....

Yesterday afternoon we all landed for the purpose of accompanying the Governor to look at a cottage which is to let at Korararika, and I believe he has made up his mind to take it, and write by the Samuel Winter for Mrs. Hobson to come immediately, indeed by the Storeship if she can possibly get ready. We have all persuaded him to do so, feelingly convinced that it will be much pleasanter for all parties.... Long as we have been delayed here, I do not see how it is possible for us to circumnavigate the Islands by the end of the month.... Shortland is to remain here as the representative of Government during our absence.... On Wednesday,

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the grand conference with the Chiefs is to take place at Busby's, and the Governor holds his first Levee. It is supposed that there will be at least a thousand natives present, and preparations are making on an enormous scale for their reception. A tent of about 120 feet is being erected and 1/2 a Ton of flour, 5 Tons of potatoes, 30 Hogs and other things, prepared to regale their mightinesses the New Zealanders. I expect it will be a rather interesting ceremony, and I shall, of course, give you an account of it.

Tuesday, 4th February, 1840. --Yesterday after breakfast, I started away from the ship for the purpose of exploring one of the inlets of the Bay.... I discovered nothing, except that there was nothing to discover. The country is so very much broken and rugged as to be really almost impracticable, and the brush and fern are so dense that it is scarcely possible to force one's way through it. The native population is very numerous, not a spot of level ground the size of a dining table on which you do not find native huts. Their food is almost entirely cockles, potatoes and cabbage, both of which grow wild in the greatest profusion, as well as turnips and radishes, whether indigenous or derived originally from the European settlers I cannot discover. They are perfect savages certainly, although the missionaries have undoubtedly done much to tame, but not to civilise them. I cannot but suspect that these gentlemen are playing a very deep game. They have despatched their schooner to the Thames and are doing all they can to keep us here. They have now induced Hobson to go to Hokianga on Monday next, so that we have no chance of leaving this untill quite the end of next week. I am exceedingly vexed at this arrangement, both because it must abridge our visit to the Southward, and yet necessarily delay our return. I fear you will be here some time waiting for me. Would the time were passed!

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Wednesday, 5th February, 1840. --This is the important day, big with the fate of "Hobson and New Zealand." On the success of our negotiations with the Chiefs today must depend our future operations. I trust it will be auspicious....

Captain Hobson agreed yesterday to take Busby's house for his family for a year, at a rent of £200. It contains two Rooms! He intends to send for her [Mrs. Hobson] by the Samuel Winter, so that you will no doubt have her as a companion de voyage in the store ship.

Things are going on very smoothly in the ship, Captain Nias has made the most ample reparation for his conduct the other day, which, in fact, arose entirely from inadvertence; and certainly no man could have behaved better than he has to us during the whole time we have been on board. He is kind, considerate and attentive as man can be, and, of course, we must speak of him as we find him, and have nothing to do with the quarrels between him and his officers. If you should have occasion to speak of him in Sydney, say what I have said, because he certainly has a very bad character there, and I do not think it deserved. We, at all events, have every reason to be satisfied....

Thursday, 6th February, 1840, 1/2 past 7 p. m. --I had just opened my desk, dearest, half an hour ago, when I was interrupted, and absolutely dragged on deck to join the officers in a quadrille. There are two capital fiddlers on board, and we have danced untill now that it is just dark.

I must now endeavour to give you as good a description as I can of what took place yesterday. The weather was very propitious, and at an early hour the Bay was alive with Canoes paddling from all quarters to the place of Rendezvous, Mr. Busby's house. You cannot imagine anything more picturesque than the appearance of one of the

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Sketch of Three Kings Islands By Felton Mathew
Sketch of Mount Egmont By Felton Mathew

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war canoes, rowed by between 30 and 40 natives, one standing "amidships," and with vehement gesticulation, beating and singing time to regulate the rowers. Most admirable line they keep, and the rapidity with which they passed is astonishing. At about 1/2 past 10, we all left the ship, the Governor, the Captain and all the officers in full dress, ourselves in proper costume, as nearly as we could manage it, and proceeded to Busby's. A great number of Europeans, as well as natives, had assembled; and after some preliminary proceedings the Governor held his Levee, we, his officers, standing around him, and Freeman acting as aide-de-camp. The Visitors were numerous, but the proceedings did not occupy long. At its conclusion we retired to a large Tent, which had been prepared by the officers of the Ship for the purpose, composed of sails and adorned with numerous flags of all nations, very tastefully arranged. The Tent was, I suppose, 150 feet long. At one end was a dais with seats for the Governor and his staff, a Table covered with the Union Jack. The European visitors arranged themselves in a circle round the Tent, with the Native Chiefs seated in the centre. Of the latter there were probably about 200, and about the same number of Europeans.

The business of the day was opened with an address from the Governor, which was interpreted to the natives by Mr. Williams, stating that he had been sent among them by the Queen to protect and defend them, and to place them under the paternal sway of Great Britain, and a good deal more such fustian. The treaty was then read by the Governor in English, and afterwards by Mr. Williams in New Zealand language, and they were then invited to express their sentiments on the subject.

[Mathew's Diary gives a fuller account of Hobson's speech, as follows: --

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He set forth briefly but emphatically, and with strong feeling, the object and intention of the Queen of England in sending him hither to assume the government of these Islands, provided the native chiefs and tribes gave their consent thereto. He pointed out to them the advantage they would derive from this intercourse with the English, and the necessity which existed for the Government to interfere for their protection on account of the number of white people who had already taken up their abode in this country. He then caused to be read to them a treaty which had been prepared, by which the native chiefs agreed to cede the sovereignty of their country to the Queen of England, throwing themselves on her protection but retaining full power over their own people--remaining perfectly independent, but only resigning to the Queen such portion of their country as they might think proper on receiving a fair and suitable consideration for the same. This treaty having been read and explained to them, they were asked to state their opinion on the matter, and to make known if any of the conditions were not clearly understood or required explanation. J

Then commenced a scene, which I wish, mine own, you could have witnessed, and which I shall never forget to the day of my death. The Majority of these Chiefs were very fine men, many of them remarkably so, and although numbers were disfigured by the European dress---the oddest mixture of garments that can be imagined, some in blue coats, some in pea jackets, blue cloaks, brown cloaks, jackets and every variety of dress--yet some of them retained their native costume, and very magnificent fellows

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they are. Many ladies also were there, their ears adorned with white feathers or the entire wing of a bird. After a while, one of the Chiefs started up, and in a strain of fervid and impassioned eloquence, accompanied with vehement gesticulation, denounced the treaty, and advised that the Governor should not be received, expressing his fear that their Lands would all pass from them and they would become slaves. He was followed by several other chiefs, all of whom expressed the same feeling, and matters, I thought, began to look very blue. Their easy flow and command of language is really astonishing, they seem never at a loss, and their custom of running up and down a prescribed space, and their vehement gesticulation give great effect to their speech. Just, however, at the critical moment when the tide seemed setting all against us, it was suddenly turned by the arrival of two powerful Chiefs, both Christians and favourable to the English. They burst into the Tent and began addressing their countrymen by observing that they knew and liked the English, and that if they did not submit to us and sign the Treaty some other nation, the French or American, would step in and take possession of their country, and that then they should indeed be slaves. It was good, therefore, to let the English remain, and to say to the Governor "you are welcome." I cannot tell you half that was said; but you would have been surprised to hear the apt and pertinent questions they proposed, and the bold and manly way in which they stipulated for the preservation of their liberties. After several hours of interesting debate in which a turn took place decidedly favourable to us, they demanded time to consider and talk over the treaty, and Friday was named as the day for concluding the business. We then adjourned to Busby's house and then returned to the ship about 7 to dinner, Tobacco, flour, hogs, and sugar being distributed among the natives.

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[The Diary supplies an interesting reconstruction of some of the speeches delivered on February 5th:--

After a while one ferocious looking chief started up and commenced a long and vehement harangue, in which he counselled his countrymen not to admit the Governor, for if they did so they would inevitably become slaves and their lands would pass from them. Then, addressing the Governor, he said:--

"If you like to remain here it is well, but we will have no more white people among us lest we be over-run with them, and our lands be taken from us."

Another chief said:--

"Go, return to your own country. Mr. Busby has been shot at. You will be shot at, perhaps killed. Mr. Busby could do nothing, but you are a Man of War, Captain, and if you are killed the soldiers will come and take a terrible vengeance on our countrymen."

Several other speakers followed, all speaking in the same strain and evidently strongly averse from our settling in their country. We have since discovered that these chiefs all acted under the influence of the Roman Catholic Bishop, Dr. Pompallier, an arch Jesuit. 7 One chief said: ---

"No. If you come amongst us you will take all our lands and make us slaves. We shall be com-

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pelled to hew wood and break stones. I am a free man and a great chief, why should I break stones? A great part of our land has already passed from us. You will take the whole and we shall starve, then if we steal you will tie us thus"--crossing his hands like a man handcuffed--"and hang us"-- putting his hands round his neck. The idea of breaking stones was palpably derived from Europeans who, being themselves outcasts of Society, are using every exertion to prevent the establishment of law and government.

Things had thus assumed a very unfavourable appearance and the current was running strongly against us, when a powerful chief named "Nina" [Tamati Waka Nene] rushed into the tent attended by other chiefs and followers, and commenced an address to his countrymen in a strain of fervid and impassioned eloquence such as I never before heard, and which immediately turned the tide in our favour. He commenced by saying:--

"Let the Governor remain. Say to him, 'You are welcome.' The English have long been settled amongst us and we like them. They give us clothes and other things which we require, and since they have been here they have put a stop to the bloody wars which we used to have, and preserved us from eating each other. The English have more power and dignity than we have, and

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we shall derive dignity from them settling amongst us. If we do not let the English remain and acknowledge Queen Victoria, other white people--the French, or Americans--will come amongst us and make us slaves. We do not like the French or Americans, we will not have them. Therefore my speech is, Let us take the English who will protect us. Let us say to the Governor, 'Remain, you are welcome.'"

This speech produced a great effect, and was followed by others in the same strain which caused a complete revulsion of feeling amongst the natives and an evident inclination in our favour. After all the chiefs had spoken a pause took place, when one of them again rose, and said:--

"Give us time to consider this matter. We will talk it over amongst ourselves. We will ask questions and then decide whether we will sign the Treaty."

The meeting was accordingly adjourned till Friday, and we separated and returned on board the ship.

The speeches occupied about six hours, and the whole scene was one that I would not have lost for the world, and which I shall never forget. The manner of the chiefs is exceedingly noble and dignified; their mode of speaking bold, emphatic and accompanied with much vehement, but always expressive and generally graceful action, and their custom of striding up and down a certain space sometimes with gigantic steps, at others in a sort of dog trot, though singular, gives great effect to their oratory, and apparently serves to collect their ideas. And it is remarkable that they never addressed the Governor but when their faces were

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turned fully and boldly towards him. Their fluency and command of language are really astonishing. Amongst all the chiefs who spoke not one was ever at a loss, and in some instances their ideas seemed to flow with a rapidity which their speech could scarcely keep pace with.

During the whole ceremony with the chiefs, nothing was more remarkable than the very apt and pertinent questions which they asked on the subject of the treaty, and the stipulations they made for the preservation of their liberty and perfect independence. They are certainly a most intelligent race, and appear susceptible to a very high degree of civilisation. They are little, if at all more barbarous than the Britons at the period of the Norman Conquest, and perhaps may in after centuries become an enlightened and powerful a nation as we are ourselves, unless, as has been almost invariably the result of colonisation by Europeans in all parts of the world, they should gradually disappear from the face of the earth.] 8

This morning immediately after breakfast, Shortland, Cooper and myself started for Busby's in order to see what was going on, and when we arrived there we found that the majority of the Chiefs were anxious to sign the Treaty immediately, in order that they might return to their homes. We accordingly instantly dispatched a messenger

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for the Governor, who arrived in about half an hour, and we then proceeded at once to the Tent, followed by a few Europeans, who happened to be there, not above a dozen, and by a large concourse of natives, many strangers having arrived last night and this morning from the more distant parts. When we were all assembled in the Tent, there could not have been fewer than five hundred Natives present, most of them chiefs, all seated on the ground with great decorum and regularity. The Treaty having been fairly written in the native language on a sheet of parchment was laid on the Table before the Governor, and at his request it was again read to them by Mr. Williams. A pause ensued, when one or two of the Chiefs rose up and said that yesterday they had not understood the matter, but that now they had made enquiry and duly considered it, and thought it was good, and they would sign it. Still, however, they hung back, which it appears is their way of doing everything, for, after a long pause, one of them rose and came forward with great dignity, and made the mark of his Tattoo 9 on the parchment, at the same time saying that he would sign "the Book" and "let those who approve it do the same, and they who do not like it, let them remain silent." After this, they came forward with eagerness, each Chief, after affixing his signature, cordially shaking hands, first with the Governor and then with all of us. One old fellow got up and cleared a space for himself, nearly the length of the Tent, in which he continued to pace up and down speaking and gesticulating most violently untill he was quite exhausted. We could not learn exactly what he meant, but his countrymen were all in a roar of laughter during the whole of his exhibition, and it had the effect of putting them all in high good humour. After all

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the principal Chiefs had signed and we were about to leave the Tent, one of them advanced into the midst and gave the signal for three thundering cheers, which closed the ceremony of the day. We returned on board to dinner, bring with us "Patamouri" [Patuone] one of the most powerful Chiefs, who stepped forward before all the assembly and presented the Governor with one of their splendid Green Talc Hatchets or "Mares" expressly for Queen "Wikitoria." This is the most valuable present they can offer, as these articles have now become very scarce, being found only on the Middle Island. Patamouri sat down to dinner with us, and you never saw an English gentleman conduct himself at table with greater grace, dignity or propriety. He would have put to the blush many an awkward European bumpkin, who sticks himself on the corner of his chair and is afraid to eat lest he should do wrong. Patamouri, on the contrary, handled his silver fork with perfect ease, took wine with everyone, attentively listening to the conversation, much of which he evidently understood, although he can only speak a few words of English.

We now consider that the first and most difficult part of our undertaking is completed, and do not anticipate any further trouble with the natives. Tomorrow, however, we hold another meeting, in case of the arrival of any fresh chiefs, and at its conclusion a Royal Salute is to be fired from the ship. It is arranged that we shall proceed to Waimati on Monday, and to Hokianga on Tuesday, remain there two days and return to the ship on Saturday. The same evening probably, or certainly on Sunday morning the 16th we shall sail for the Thames. The Governor talks of sending me down before them to explore that part of the country, of which we hear glowing accounts; but I do not much think he will do so, unless the Ranger, Revenue Cutter, should arrive, in which case he will immediately put her

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under my orders. I did long for you to have been on my arm and witnessed the scene of yesterday and today.

We are working a good deal in the dark; and there are four distinct parties all opposed to each other, but all endeavouring in different ways and for different purposes to throw dust in our eyes, namely the European inhabitants, the Missionaries, Busby, and the Roman Catholic Bishop. They are each playing a deep game--but "God and our cause"! I think the right will prevail. The country, I feel assured, has been too highly lauded by incompetent or interested parties, I mean as to its extreme fertility, which is, I believe, contrary to fact. But the climate appears to be most delightful, certainly nothing can be more delicious than it has been since we have been here.... I think Hobson will be off his Bargain for Busby's house, and it is quite proper that he should be so. Busby is an artful humbug....

Friday, 7th February, 1840. --We have certainly hitherto been fortune's favourites! We had a most beautiful passage from Sydney, everything has gone on well here, and by mere accident, as it were, we accomplished all our most important business yesterday. And most lucky was it that we did so; for although there was not the least appearance of it at a late hour last night, it has been raining the whole day so steadily and so heavily that we could not under any circumstances have left the ship. I have been writing a letter to Lord, and also committing to my journal an account of the important proceedings of the last two days, and now I sit down to scribble a little more to you, mine own dear precious wife, before I close this, which I must do this afternoon, as the Samuel Winter has hauled out into the Stream with Blue Peter flying, and will certainly leave at daylight tomorrow. ... You will, however, be pleased to know that I am very comfortable, and that everything goes on smoothly

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and pleasantly. Our little party is very united, and our evenings are always passed in chat, seated cosily round the Cabin table. Sometimes for variety one or two of us adjourn to the Gun room for an hour, and have a conversation with the officers. They are generally a very nice set of fellows, and we are on the best of terms with all on board....

1   H. M. S. Druid (Captain, Lord Henry J. S. Churchill), on which Hobson had come out to Sydney.
2   Governor Gipps' Proclamations (dated January 14, but not published till after the Herald had sailed) extended the boundaries of New South Wales to include certain territories which might be acquired by the Queen in Sovereignty, and declared that Captain Hobson had taken oaths of office as Lieutenant-Governor of such territories in New Zealand as had been or should be thus acquired; and further declared that no purchases of land in New Zealand would be considered valid unless confirmed by Crown grant, Land Commissioners to be appointed for the purpose of investigating claims.
3   The original portion of this house was brought out to the Bay of Islands in 1833. Busby, when appointed Resident, had asked for a "very modest cottage" of eleven rooms, to cost about £600, but Government economy curtailed his residence to two rooms. These were all that existed in 1840, Busby making additions later. The residence was entirely built of wood, not bricks, as Mathew surmises.
4   Mathew later retracts these hasty and uninformed judgments, and pays tribute to the work of the missionaries. Vide infra, pp. 54-56.
5   An adequate account has not yet been written of Busby's valiant endeavour to draw together the Chiefs and Tribes of New Zealand into a "Confederation"--that is, an elementary form of association which he hoped would prove a means of weaning them from the worst evils of the prevailing tribal regime, and gradually inducing an appreciation of a more civilised mode of government. The data is all there, in the Colonial Office files in the Public Record Office, London. Busby's efforts, creditable to himself, were unsupported from Sydney or London, and produced little practical result. The Confederation never struck real roots in the soil of New Zealand native custom. But the Chiefs of the Confederation were officially recognised by H. M. Government, and Hobson was specifically instructed to negotiate with the Confederation, as well as with non-members. The distinction was, in point of political fact, purely nominal.
6   These Proclamations recited the Letters Patent extending the boundaries of New South Wales, and the Commission appointing Hobson Lt. Governor, announced that he had entered upon his duties as Lt. Governor, and repeated the terms of Gipps' proclamation respecting land-titles in New Zealand. The original of the Declaration, or Memorial, referred to is in Internal Affairs Dept., Records, Wellington, 1840, vol. i, folio 32; a somewhat inaccurate printed version appears in Sherrin and Wallace, "Early History of New Zealand," p. 481.
7   This is an oft-repeated allegation, that Bishop Pompallier used his spiritual influence to prejudice the Catholic Natives against accepting British rule. This conclusion was certainly jumped to by the Government officers at the time; but it is only fair to add that it rested upon assumption. An exhaustive examination of all the original correspondence on the subject in the Colonial Office files has revealed not a particle of material evidence to substantiate the charge. The Bishop, it would appear, took a strictly neutral position, and would not advise the Natives one way or the other on a political issue. On the other hand, it is capable of historical proof that certain Americans at the Bay did their best to sway the Natives against Hobson; their influence was largely counteracted by J. R. Clendon, a British subject, then acting as American Consul in New Zealand.
8   The italics are my own. Mathew's history is a bit out of focus, as the Ancient Britons (Celts) had been submerged beneath the successive tides of Anglo-Saxon and Danish (Viking) invasion long before the Norman Conquest. But the analogy is an interesting one, and no one reading such an account of Celtic and early Anglo-Saxon society, as say, E. Wingfield-Stratford's, in "History of British Civilisation," can fail to be struck by the close similarity in essential features with the Maori tribal system.
9   Mathew is in error here. Hone Heke, the first to sign the Treaty, wrote his own name.

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