1940 - Mathew, Felton. The Founding of New Zealand: The Journals of Felton Mathew, First Surveyor-General of New Zealand, and his Wife, 1840-1847. - Chapter VI. Second Visit To The Waitemata [Part 1], p 119-156

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  1940 - Mathew, Felton. The Founding of New Zealand: The Journals of Felton Mathew, First Surveyor-General of New Zealand, and his Wife, 1840-1847. - Chapter VI. Second Visit To The Waitemata [Part 1], p 119-156
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[Any question as to the essentially temporary character of the "capital" at Russell is settled by the fact that on April 6th, before the Agreement with Clendon was confirmed, Felton Mathew was instructed to proceed south in the Revenue Cutter Ranger, to select as speedily as possible an eligible site for the chief settlement and seat of Government. He was to visit the harbours of Whangarei and Mahurangi, but his attention was particularly directed to the spot on the south shore of the Waitemata, which he had visited with the Governor in February, and which had appeared at first sight to possess distinct advantages.

Mathew, accompanied by his wife, embarked on the Ranger on the 18th April, and in a cruise which lasted nearly two months touched at every important inlet between the Bay of Islands and the mouth of the River Thames, and made a careful examination of Whangarei, Mahurangi, the Waitemata and the Tamaki. Mrs. Mathew's Journal gives a good description of this voyage. Her account is followed by a digest of Felton Mathew's official report, in which he dismissed the

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site on the Waitemata indicated by Hobson as "totally unfit for the site of the principal settlement, and indeed ill-adapted for a settlement at all," and recommended instead that the capital be built on the Tamaki. --Ed.]


Saturday, 18th April. --... Went on board the "cutter" as she was beating out with very little wind; soon became sick and sad and went to bed.

Sunday, 19th April. --A fine warm day, but very little wind, mere rolling about in sight of the Perforated Rock all day; sick and miserable of course, lying on cloaks on the deck till night, when, a breeze springing up, the vessel became much easier.

Monday, 20th April. --At daylight were off the heads of Wangari Bay, the wind very light but with the tide we got in and anchored about 10 a.m. I went on deck about 8 o'clock, and as we drifted in close to the shore, I was perfectly delighted and lost almost all sense of sea-sickness in the bold magnificent scenery it presented; such lofty craggy heights I never saw, the sides of them generally covered with trees and beautifully green; the summits were broken into pinnacles and masses of rocks resembling towers and walls and bastions; indeed very little help of the imagination might transfer the scene to the banks of the Rhine. The birds were singing beautifully in the woods.

A boat was lowered as soon as the cutter anchored and we started away to explore the upper part of the harbour and river of "Wangari." A heavy shower of rain came on, but we buffeted it stoutly and with the help of cloaks were determined to care for nothing. We left a

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canoe full of natives alongside the cutter and they, as well as the crew, were pulling up the fish as fast as the hooks were thrown; very fine fish they are--schnappers, gurnet and what is called salmon in these seas. We reached the mouth of the river and landed on a shelly beach intending to climb the highest shore and look around us, but very heavy rain coming on and the sides of the steep ascent from the beach being thickly tangled with fern and brushwood we found it was impracticable, and returned to our boat. On the beach we found running in veins between the strata of rocks some very curious specimens of a sort of thin spar exactly resembling the Derbyshire spar. From the opposite or North shore we procured some masses of what seems to be manganese. There are no shells of any beauty to be found here. The North shore is fringed with mangroves and landing is difficult.

We were wet and cold, having been in repeated showers all day, so we were glad to return to the cutter about 5 p.m. Found the natives whom we left in the morning still on board. The old chief was invited to the Cabin to drink tea with us. He seems a very intelligent old fellow, and though we could not understand each other very well yet we managed to keep him in perfect good humour, and he drank his tea in a very civilised manner and even eat his fish with a fork till hunger prevailed and he was obliged to take the assistance of his fingers to expedite the business.

Tuesday, 21st April. --Started early fully prepared to proceed up the river as far as navigable, and to camp if necessary. The river is wide and has a deep channel on the north side, which we followed, taking the tide with us. The shores are high, broken and wooded, on the southern shore thickly fringed with mangroves, and as we afterwards found very shoal, quite a mud flat for many miles at low water. We proceeded merrily up this very beautiful

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river till about noon when, on suddenly turning a road, we came in view of a small rapoo house evidently the abode of Europeans, being larger than the huts the natives construct for themselves in this manner. The crowing of a cock, too, is a most civilised sound, and in this country a very uncommon one. As we approached, two men came out to reconnoitre. I was glad to see they were both white men. We pulled into the landing place, where lay a canoe, and a fine whale boat was carefully drawn up on the land near. There was at a little distance a pah or native village and several New Zealanders were hanging about the place. The proprietor is a Scotsman, a settler from Illawaora, and had been there about six months; he seemed very glad to see our party. He had some land in cultivation and plenty of pigs. Our men landed and cooked their dinner in the house; we took some luncheon in the boat and then walked about a little, but the ground is everywhere so encumbered with fern, scrub, and reeds that we could not go far. A narrow path full of holes of water led to the pah, but rain coming on and it being very muddy and very disagreeable walking we returned to the boat. The gude-man gave us a basket of fine Potatoes for a few figs of Tobacco, and then we took leave of him and proceeded up the river, which now narrows very suddenly, and about a mile farther is lost in a mangrove swamp, or becomes only a little mountain stream so encumbered with these mangroves as to be quite useless.

We returned, and were surprised at the different appearance the river now presented. It was, in many parts, merely a narrow winding stream, on either side a vast extent of sand banks covered with mangroves, among which millions of waterfowls were enjoying themselves. It was now getting late and we anxiously looked out for a place to camp, but in vain; it was impossible to reach either shore from the mud flats which extended from them and

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a fine breeze now springing up, we determined to run for the harbour and get on board the Cutter. First, however, we tried to land on the Point we yesterday reached, and which we now found was an island, but though we could reach it we could not find on it a level spot large enough for a single tent, so encumbered is it all around that no footing scarcely could be made on it. So we stretched on till about the middle of the bay a squall of wind and rain set in so thick upon us that we were compelled to lower our sail and take to the oars, for the water was so shoal and the darkness so great that we could not venture to run before the gale. Indeed, I was quite terrified, for our little boat is but a frail one for these seas in such a squall and so laden as ours then was. Meantime we pulled on in the darkness wondering where the Cutter could be. She had certainly left the anchorage she had occupied in the morning and it was now so dark we could see nothing 20 yards from the boat. We then fired a shot in hopes she would answer and the sound would guide us. Anxiously we listened for some time; no reply. I fully expected we should pass the night in the boat, at least till the moon rose, and being very wet and cold the prospect was not cheering. We pulled on, however, towards a little glimmering on the shore which we thought might proceed from the huts of some natives, and again fired a shot which was this time answered, and then a light was hoisted by the Cutter, then scarcely 100 yards from us though not in the place we had left her in the morning. She had heard our first shot, but not expecting our return, had fancied it was merely the chief who had paid them a visit in the morning and to whom they had lent a musket to shoot some pigeons.

Wednesday, April 22nd. --Started about 9 a.m. to examine the southern shore, which at a distance seems comparatively low and level and has a curious wall of white rocks extending along a considerable part of it. Approach-

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ing it we found it to be about a uniform height of perhaps 30 or 40 feet with deep water very near the shore. We looked out for a spot to land and finding a little opening ran the boat in and landed under these white rocks which we were so anxious to examine. To our great astonishment we found this rock to be nothing but sand, so soft that most of it crumbled beneath the touch and wholly unfit for building or any purpose. On reaching the top of the heights a large plain covered with fern and brushwood extended a considerable distance inland, and then fell suddenly into a vast mangrove swamp which seems to reach the foot of the hills in the background, only intersected by narrow streams of water--the whole scene most desolate and gloomy.

We returned to our boat, and after sounding across the Bay we landed again on the southern shore nearer the entrance, where the white sand wall was much lower, and indeed was evidently but the washing up of the tide. The water was shoal far out but we determined to look over the land in this direction, so leaving the men to make a fire of driftwood and get their dinner we set off inland but were soon stopped by streams of water and swamps which seemed to fill up the centre of the plain, the high land being merely a wall round it. We returned to the beach, enjoyed a good lunch and then pulled across to the foot of the high rocky peak which forms the northern Point on entering the Bay. Here we again landed, and with incredible difficulty made our way to the top. At the foot of the mountain the brushwood is so thick and so tangled that we had the greatest difficulty in scrambling through it. Then the perpendicular sides of the steep ascent were to be conquered only by the help of hands and knees, grasping the roots and bunches of fern. Half way up there are deep trenches, evidently the work of man, and most probably intended as entrenchments or defences in some of the

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destructive wars which in bygone days were so frequent among the savage tribes. We counted three distinct ledges or trenches, each perhaps twelve or twenty feet deep and quite perpendicular. Now they are quite overgrown with brushwood and fern and we climbed from one to the other with but little difficulty. The summit is a large mass of grey rock, on three sides quite bare and overhanging, but the fourth more broken, with shrubs and trees in the interstices, afforded us a comparatively easy path and all our toils were well repaid by the extent and grandeur of the scene beneath when we reached the top, a level spot of bare rock scarcely larger than a moderate table, and upwards of 1,000 feet from the level of the sea, which, at the moment, lay smooth and placid, purpled and gilded with the rays of the setting sun. No description can give the least idea of the scene: the mass of mountains around us, one whose peak broken into most fantastic pinnacles yet towered above us, the open sea beyond, the extensive and beautiful bay, the thickly wooded valley or glen below, and above all the utter solitude, the deep silence that prevailed, not a living creature save our two selves. It was a solitude that might be felt, we might fancy ourselves the only inhabitants of the world. We stayed but a short time fearing the darkness might close upon us ere we could descend. I waved my large black shawl thinking it possible they might distinguish it from the cutter against the clear, blue sky, but found they did not see it, indeed the height was so great that we could scarcely make out the little vessel herself riding in the bay. We descended with less toil than the ascent had cost us, and reached the shore, where we made a fire and sat down to wait our boat's return, as we had dispatched her to the Cutter to beg she would get under weigh immediately and pick us up as she came past. There was so little wind, however, after sunset that she made little progress. We got on board and, quite tired,

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were glad to go to bed. She ran out during the night and next morning.

Thursday, April 23rd. --We found ourselves running along the coast with a fine breeze; the shores are all high, rugged and picturesque and we passed a number of small islands apparently quite destitute of inhabitants. The weather is most beautiful. We are really highly favoured in this respect for stormy, wet weather in this little vessel would be truly miserable. As it is I enjoy the voyage much, if voyage it can be called, running from port to port in about a day or so at a time. The wind failed towards evening and we lay so quiet on the water, the tide just setting us towards the entrance of the Bay of Mauranghi, our destination.

Friday, 24th April. --At daylight entered the harbour and at about 10 a.m. anchored. In less than a quarter of an hour we were in our boat and away to explore the river at the head of the Bay. The shores in many parts thickly skirted by mangroves, that strange tree that lives only in or near the salt water, and there, in the mud flats it thrives so rapidly that dense impenetrable thickets are formed by it extending far into shoal water. In other parts the high wooded hills extended to the water's edge, and here I first saw the famed Koudi tree which is now so extensively used for masts and spars under the name of New Zealand pine. It is a magnificent tree certainly, but not at all like our ideas of Pine, as it has a fine branching head quite different to any of the fir species. The forests covering the sides of the mountains were full of these trees, the young saplings are spiral and graceful and the older trees are many of them 50 or 60 feet high without a single branch and then a large branching head surmounts it; the foliage is generally rather scanty, being principally in tufts at the ends of the smaller branches, and of a lovely yellow green. There are numbers of other fine trees in these forests and

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Panoramic View of the Waitemata from Remuera, 1840.

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the brushwood is thick and impenetrable, consisting of ferns of very large size, a sort of grass tree and the same sort of fern tree, which I have seen in the brushes of New South Wales, like a feathery palm tree about 15 or 20 feet in height. In these woods there are numbers of pigeons exactly like those of Norfolk Island; they are very large, of beautiful plumage and easily shot, as they sit quite still in the trees and take no notice of anything. We saw numbers of wild ducks also, but these are so shy it is impossible to get near them; we shot one pair only; pigeons we breakfast, dine and sup on, as they are an agreeable change from the usual New Zealand fare, pork and potatoes, the latter very indifferent this season.

After proceeding five miles up this beautiful river we heard the sound of a waterfall, and turning an angle came to the head of the navigation at once, for a ledge of rocks extended quite across the stream, about 10 or 12 feet in height, over which the water poured in numerous broken masses. We landed just below the fall in order to examine the country. Leaving the men to make a fire and get their dinner, we set off on our walk, the ground everywhere so encumbered with brushwood and fern that it was a most fatiguing task. Sometimes the scrub we groped through was far above our heads and the long, tough stalks of the fern twisted round our legs and sadly and painfully impeded our progress. We toiled on, however, to reach a distant hill which commanded a fine view over the neighbouring country, and in about two hours' walking arrived at the summit. The prospect was very beautiful, a succession of undulating hills, the sides of some of them clothed with woods, the river winding like a silver thread along the valley, sometimes lost in the woods and again seen in the distance sparkling over another rocky fall. We returned to our boat tired and hungry and found we must hasten over the rocks as the receding tide was leaving a very

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shallow channel for our boat. We got her out safely, however, and reached the cutter about 7 o'clock.

Saturday, April 25th. --Started early to explore a branch which seemed to extend from the southern side of the river. We found to our disappointment that it was of no extent at all, soon lost in a mangrove swamp, so we returned to the river and again went up to the Falls, where we landed on the south side, and proceeded to examine the country on this side. We found it similar to that on the opposite side which we went over yesterday. On reaching the hills the view was very lovely, commanding a distant sight of the Bay of Mauranghi, and the islands off the coast. The land must be fertile from the rank luxuriance of the fern and brushwood which was almost impenetrable except on the very highest ridges, and even there the walking was very fatiguing. We passed numerous traces of wild pigs, which are said to be very numerous, the descendants of those left by Captain Cook.

I believe we have not seen a single Maori (or native) since leaving Wangari, nor have we fallen in with the least trace of inhabitants. The whole country as far as eye can reach seems in its most primitive state, scarcely a living creature to be seen, insect or bird or beast; one small lark and a little quail were all the birds I saw during our two days' excursions. Nothing can give an adequate idea of the utter solitude and stillness that prevails around, and I found that even our own voices were lost among these extensive hills; calling aloud to my companion, whom I could not see for the thick scrub through which we were scrambling, he did not hear me for several minutes, and as I hastily groped on I found we were not ten steps apart. We got back to the cutter before sunset, and then determined to take advantage of the fine weather and favourable tide to proceed, so weighed anchor immediately and got out of the harbour with the ebb tide.

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Sunday, April 26th. --A beautiful day. We have hitherto been highly favoured in the weather which has been most delightful. All day we were running down the coast to the southward with a gentle breeze. There is, I am sorry to say, no attempt to perform divine service on board this little vessel. The sailors all appeared dirty as usual, though not much work was going on; indeed very little was required for the little vessel seems easily managed. We read the service on deck ourselves and then walked, observing the various appearances of the coast and the different islands we passed. The land seems to be much lower all along, and the cliffs are bare, and were composed of a sort of indurated clay or soft sandstone, which appears quite white at a distance, and reminded me of "Albion's chalky cliffs." I trust I shall one day have the happiness of seeing them; with what delight shall I watch them as we approach the shores of our dear native land. The wind was so light that it was quite dark ere we reached the entrance to the bay of Waitemata, and then falling calm we anchored about midnight to avoid being drifted in as the channel is quite unknown.

Monday, April 27th. --Weighed anchor about 8 o'clock and proceeded up the harbour of Waitemata, the shores still comparatively low but wooded. The birds were singing sweetly among the trees in the early morning; there is no variety of song, but a sweet liquid note resembling in a slight degree the song of the blackbird, is the most prevailing note. At about 11 a.m. we struck on a sunk rock in the midst of the channel, though we were proceeding cautiously and sounding all the time; it must be a point only for there is deep water all round. She was got off with some difficulty and our worthy captain was very apprehensive of her having received much injury. He anchored immediately that she got into deep water again and one of our men who could dive went down twice and examined the

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vessel carefully. He reported that she had received no injury whatever, which I trust we shall find is the case. We had but little wind at the time so that she did not strike with so much force, though quite enough to cause a very unpleasant and alarming grating sound under our feet.

About 1 p.m. we started in our boat to explore what appeared to be the principal river debouching in this fine bay, but finding time would not admit of our getting far before dark, we turned into a beautiful creek thickly wooded on both banks. Numbers of wild ducks rose from amongst the mangroves, which everywhere fringed the edge of the water, in many places extending far out, forming extensive banks of sand at low water. We saw innumerable pigeons also and shot several. We reached the head of the creek or as far as was navigable, and then landed and climbed the bank to get a view of the country, but after walking some time we found the scrub so thick that it was impossible to see any distance, so returned to the boat and after filling our water casks at a beautiful natural basin of rock into which fell a stream of pure water, we pulled back to the cutter.

Tuesday, April 28th. --Immediately after breakfast started to examine the Waitemata river. It is as usual a very irregular channel, in some parts the water so shoal that we could scarcely get our light boat over, in others very deep water close into the shore. The banks are thickly fringed with wood, but the hills beyond are bare and undulating, the hollows green with rushes and coarse grass. About noon reached a fall of about 5 or 6 feet, a ledge of rocks extending quite across. It was now low water, so we could proceed no further. We landed and walked for about two hours over the hills to examine the country, found it barren and encumbered with fern and scrub, but not so high and luxuriant as at Mauranghi, consequently it was not so difficult to traverse. About half

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way we came to a narrow but deep creek and were obliged to wade through the rushes and rank vegetation on its banks to find a place to cross. At length we came to a very romantic little cascade, where the whole stream was collected into a narrow shower and poured over the rocks in a sheet of foam, which we managed to jump across. The view we obtained from the highest point we reached was as barren and dreary as can be imagined, undulating hills extending in every direction; here and there the valley and sides of one would be covered with fine woods, but in general the slopes are so trifling that they are only distinguished by the light green of the rushes which everywhere cover the swampy ground. Returning to the boat we found the tide had risen so as to cover the rocks and allow easy passage to our boat, so we resolved to explore yet further. The banks were now higher, thickly wooded, and the stream narrower but not so shallow, it being nearly high water. After proceeding about three miles, we came to another fall and ledge of rocks, not very high but sufficient to bar our further progress. We saw numbers of wild ducks, but they were so shy we could not get near enough to shoot any. We returned to the Cutter about 6 p.m., the river as we descended appearing a noble stream, being at nearly high water; the hills here making so great a difference.

Wednesday, 29th. --Left the cutter at about 9 a. m. to examine the lower branch of the river, 1 but were soon compelled to return for it being near low water the river had not sufficient water to float our boat, we stuck in the mud several times and with difficulty got her off; fully two-thirds of the river's bed was nothing but banks of mud covered with oysters and mangroves, the former literally growing to the branches of the latter. We then crossed to what seemed a sandy bay on the south side of the harbour, 2

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found it nothing but shells, principally cockleshells, almost triturated to sand; these shells seem thrown up continually, forming large beds which each tide rolls backwards and forwards always breaking, always accumulating. After walking over the peninsula, for such it seems, being almost surrounded by mangrove swamps, we returned to our boat and found added to our party a chief and his slave, who had come down the river in a canoe. They were fine looking men; the chief, dressed in a bonnet rouge and comfortable coat like a coachman, seemed quite happy but for the want of a pair of trousers which he very earnestly begged us to give him. We could not any of us spare these articles, so he was contented with some biscuit and cheese and a glass of wine which he did not omit to drink with due ceremony. He talked incessantly, but all we could make out was that he had come from "Kiapara," had seen the Governor and had signed the Treaty. From hence we went up another deep estuary in the bay which promised a fine opening, but being nearly sundown and the weather very squally, we were obliged to turn towards the cutter, our little ark at present. We saw myriads of snipes in the shoal water and shot a dozen of these graceful birds. They rise in flights and skim round and round in close phalanx, like starlings. We reached the cutter about 7 o'clock.

Friday, May 1st. --Anything but like May day. It was, however, rather less unpromising than it was yesterday, so I accompanied my husband as usual. We explored about the southern part of the Bay and encountered several very heavy squalls of wind and rain. In the afternoon a new and interesting object was descried in the Bay, a large boat filled with people bearing down towards us. Amid these dreary solitudes such an object is quite an event, and I watched it approaching very anxiously. As it came alongside we perceived that it contained several white men and a number of natives. One of the former came upon deck

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and asked for the "Surveyor General," who, of course, made his appearance. The object of these gentlemen seemed to be to find out where the new settlement was to be, but as nothing is as yet decided they did not obtain the information they sought. They were a strange set of beings, settlers from the Thames and Coromandel Harbour--and such specimens of settlers; many degrees below those of New South Wales in apparent respectability. Truly the early settlers in a new colony do become most extraordinary beings, somewhat, I imagine, of the Kentucky style, "half horse, half alligator, with a touch of the earthquake." They were not welcomed with much cordiality, so they soon pushed off again and we saw the smoke from their camping place some few miles off, where they stayed the night and departed the next morning. 3

Saturday, May 2nd. -- Still showery, but the wind rather more moderate, and between the showers it was warm and pleasant. I have never seen so many rainbows as since the last few days; there has scarcely been a half hour through the day when the beautiful arch of promise has not been visible in one quarter or other, sometimes most vivid in colour and of a full and perfect arch. I have also seen several lunar rainbows, the colours almost as bright as those formed by the sun. We explored a creek today, which promised to lead through a finer country than we have yet seen in this southern side of the Bay, but our hopes were fallacious as to the country on its banks, and for itself, at low water, it soon becomes a mere ditch running between broad banks of mud. We were obliged to stop till the tide should rise sufficiently to enable us to

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return, and as we were desirous of ascertaining the character of the country inland, we made some efforts to reach the shore through the mud, which we at last effected by laying the oars down to give some footing to the first passenger, who then cut down branches and small trees and laid a causeway to the bank; we then had an almost perpendicular bank to climb, so thick with fern and underwood, all wet from the recent showers, that we were soon wet through. The long tough ferns, however, formed a very good sort of ladder, and without this help we certainly could not have attained the top of the bank on account of the wet, slippery ground, which afforded no other support to the feet. The top of the bank gained, we walked over the country for three or four miles bent on gaining an elevation to look over the hills, which in every direction rose all round us. This toilsome task we at length accomplished and gained a rather extensive view over the most dreary and desolate looking country eye ever beheld. I cannot imagine that the deserts of Arabia or Syria can be more miserable and monotonous; not a sound to be heard, not a bird or insect to be seen along the whole extent of dreary waste, and the eye became quite weary of seeking some green spot to rest upon. The surface of the hills is all bleak and grey, being only covered with dwarf scrub and half dead fern; their sides are generally clothed with the same sort of vegetation, but more luxuriant and consequently more difficult to traverse, the fern and scrub being often higher than one's head; the narrow hollows between the hills are generally marshy and covered thick with rushes; it is indeed a gloomy country, without flowers or fruits or birds or insects. I cannot but fancy it accursed, for flowers appear to me as the symbols and sign of the beneficence of the Deity, seeming to be solely created for the gratification of his creatures. No wonder that the natives of these islands are a savage ferocious race, their country

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possesses not any of those refining gratifications of sense which tend so materially to soften and ameliorate the heart and manners. After two hours of fatiguing research we got back to our boat and were glad to find there was at length sufficient water in this muddy channel to allow us to return; we reached the cutter again at about 6 o'clock.

Sunday, May 3rd. --A day of rest. I am sorry to observe our worthy captain does not read the church service, inviting his crew to attend; so we read in our cabin. The weather is still very squally and disagreeable, rainy at intervals and very cold. For the sake of a little exercise to warm us we landed on the rocks near the ship in the afternoon and tried to walk round the point. We scrambled over the muddy, slippery rocks for about an hour and then returned to the vessel.

Monday, May 4th. ---Left the Cutter at half past 5 this morning to explore the lower branch of the river. It was dark and very cold, the stars shining bright and frostily. This river at high tide is a broad, beautiful stream and we followed it up for about eight miles when we found it narrow very suddenly and terminate in a picturesque fall of about 15 or 20 feet. The banks were here so thick with luxuriant vegetation and so rugged and steep that it was quite impossible to find a spot to land, we therefore turned and after seeking an accessible place for about a mile back, succeeded; and lighting a fire were glad to warm ourselves at it. We then attempted to penetrate to the top of a lofty hill in order to gain a view of the distant country, but after scrambling through the wet fern and brushwood till we were completely wet through we had the mortification to find an impassable creek and ravine still between us and the height we were so anxious to gain. We found no possible means of crossing this barrier so were forced to return to our fire, and after a hasty breakfast got into our boat and returned down the river. About noon we again

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halted and climbed the heights on the opposite side; we then returned to the cutter; the wind very fresh and a heavy cross sea gave us a most disagreeable tossing about.

Tuesday, May 5th. --Having now finished with "Waitemata," and the cutter not being quite ready to start, rather than lose a day we determined to proceed with the boat taking tent and provisions to stay away the night. We reached "Temaki" strait and found the entrance to what seems an important river, but the entrance we had seen being very considerable we deferred the examination and looked out for a camping place. We landed for this purpose on the small island of "Koreho," which lies opposite the mouth of the river "Tehmaki" or "Wai Magua" [Wai Mokoia]. After selecting a favourable spot we proceeded to walk round and examine the island which is a very singular and beautiful spot, apparently an extinct volcano, the soil entirely volcanic and seemingly most fertile. We walked entirely round it in about an hour, the shores being either sandy bays, or huge ledges or masses of black rock easily scrambled over; it was quite a relief to walk here where one's steps were unencumbered with the detestable fern and brush. After dinner we set out to explore the hills in the interior; they seem all to be volcanic peaks and surround a complete basin, having the appearance of a large crater, the sides of which are now covered with a luxuriant vegetation, filling up the interstices of the vast masses of stone and lava. It is very fatiguing to scramble among these hills, for the loose stones roll beneath the feet and the fern and brushwood is so thick you cannot see your footpath. It is, however, a very beautiful spot and might be made still more beautiful by cultivation. I had many pleasing day-dreams here. I pictured my cottage in some sheltered knoll, its beautiful garden full of flowers and redolent of scents; my romantic walks among the hills or on the sands; the really magnificent sea view presented on

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every side forming the background to every such picture.

Wednesday, May 6th. --Passed a very comfortable night on our bed of fern, and after an early breakfast we started away to explore the Tehmaki river; found it a wide and beautiful stream, the entrance only encumbered by shoals, the channel of deep water being narrow and intricate. About noon we reached a branch which, running about a quarter of a mile, terminated in a very curious basin surrounded by high ground thickly covered with fern and brush. We landed in two places to try to ascend a lofty hill from which we expected to gain a good view of the country, but were obliged to give up the attempt, and returned to the cutter after a very long and fatiguing day. We expected she would have come down to meet us, but we found her in her old anchorage, busy in getting a new bowsprit.

Thursday and Friday. --We were coming down in the cutter, but the winds were so light that she made very slow progress; we meanwhile put off in our boat and examined another bay near the entrance of the Strait; explored a creek from which it terminated in a basin exactly similar to the one we had seen in the Tehmaki river. We also made an effort to ascend the huge peak of the volcanic island of "Rangitoto," but found it quite impossible. The word signifies "red sky" in the language of the country, and it probably received the name, when being in a state of eruption, the sky above would, of course, be tinged by the fire. It has every appearance of having not long ago become extinct, for though the brushwood is so luxuriant as to be almost impenetrable, yet a very few years would suffice for its growth in such a soil and in so moist and genial a climate. The island is so surrounded with masses of black stone, resembling the ashes from some huge furnace, that it is difficult to effect a landing, for these huge fragments lie scattered far out into the sea and are

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partly covered by the tides, forming a resting place for masses of oysters which seem to grow in clusters on anything that is partly covered by salt water; even the branches of the mangroves are frequently thickly covered, so that it may be said with perfect truth that the oysters grow on trees. Some of the volcanic stones are covered by lichens and various sorts of beautiful moss. We found a species of Acacia or Mimosa growing in the interstices of the rocks, which was very beautiful, and of which I got a quantity of seed. We returned to the cutter before dark.

Saturday, May 9th. --Started after breakfast and went up the Tehmaki river. About ten miles up saw a hut on the right bank with two natives near it; landed and found they were waiting there with a large number of pigs, for a schooner from the Bay of Islands with which she was to be freighted. We could not make them understand our questions relative to the portage to Manakau on the western coast, so determined to proceed and find out for ourselves. After rowing for about two hours, the river still wide and beautiful, its banks moderately high and thickly covered with brush, we came to a sudden narrowing of the channel and the remains of a native hut. Here we landed and tried to gain some height which should give us a view over the surrounding country, but found it vain as the time it would take to reach any such eminence would leave our boat dry and prevent our return till the tide should again rise; we therefore put back and rowed on till we reached a part of the river where there was depth enough, even at low water, for us. Here the men landed and dined and we, meanwhile, walked for about two hours over the undulating hills, thickly covered with fern and scrub, till on gaining a height, we caught the first view of the western coast and the great bay of "Manakao." The country is very beautiful here; the outline of the hills on the horizon is bold, varied, and picturesque; the sea gates

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on the Eastern and Western coasts are distinctly visible, the low land between is undulating and, judging by the rank luxuriance of the fern and underwood, must be of the greatest fertility. Far beneath us, and at some distance, was a low neck from the river we had traced to the Bay of "Manakao" and here we imagined must be the Portage, the place the natives know as the "carrying place," where they are in the habit of carrying their canoes across. We returned to our boat and proceeding down the river, stopped again at the hut where we first saw the natives; landed and set out on our walk, determined to find our way to the Bay. After traversing a well beaten path for about an hour we caught a view of the waters of "Manakao," and, satisfied with the discovery, we turned again in our steps, and retraced our way to the boat. The soil seems entirely volcanic in this neighbourhood; we found continually large masses of the same sort of black volcanic stone as at "Rangitoto" and "Koreho." We reached the cutter just after dark.

Sunday, May 10th. ---Prepared letters for the Dolphin schooner.

Monday, May 11. --Nothing particular occurred. The wind fresh and cold.

Tuesday, 12th. ---Set off early to go to Mr. Fairburn's, the missionary at Maraetai. He has been settled in this country 22 years; his wife is an Australian; she gave me a dismal account of their terrors and suffering when they first settled among these savage tribes. They were then fierce and cruel as Captain Cook found them, and it was in hourly peril of their lives that these courageous people dwelt among them for the great and benevolent purpose of trying to humanise and christianise them. In the first they have, it seems, wonderfully succeeded and many people believe that they have been equally successful in the latter, but this I still doubt. It is, however, a great thing to have

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rendered these ferocious and terrible cannibals, men moderately quiet and peaceable. We found the family of the Fairburns all kind and hospitable in the extreme. Their house is roomy and comfortable, though built in the manner of the natives, of "Rapao," that is, bundles of reeds tied together in a close and very neat manner, and the roof of palm leaves plaited in a peculiar fashion, resembling in the inside, where it is embrowned by the smoke, rich carving in some dark wood. I was an object of great curiosity to the native women who were servants in the house, and at every opportunity they would come and look in at the window or squat down at the door to look at me, talking rapidly to each other about the "Wahine Pakeha," the only words I could understand, which means white woman. Mrs. Fairburn speaks better of them and their capacity than any other of the missionaries' wives I have seen. Her eldest daughter has a school of about 50, and she tells me they learn very quickly. The six Mrs. Fairburn employs in her family can read and write, sew, do the household work including washing and ironing, and she says, they are generally docile and obedient, but require looking after or would be idle or negligent. This I consider a very favourable account of them.

Wednesday, 13th. --Felton set off alone determined to ascend the high hill which we attempted in vain on our first examination of the "Tehmaki." He succeeded in reaching the summit with very great toil and labour and returned about six p.m.

Thursday, May 14th. --We proceeded again up the river to explore one of its branches; found it very shoal, the channel encumbered with mud flats, the shore flat and thickly covered with fern and brushwood. About noon we landed, and after setting fire to the fern we proceeded towards a lofty hill which we expected would give us an expansive view. At first our walk was difficult and pain-

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ful, for though thickly covered with fern and brush the surface of the ground was so rugged and strewn with large masses of volcanic stone that almost every step was a stumble. At last we got on a sort of path where the footprint of cattle showed a trace of civilisation and was most welcome. Keeping this track walking became easier and in about two hours we reached the top of the hill. We lost our good footpath at the foot of the steepest part of it, but we managed to climb the remainder by clinging to the branches and fern, without much difficulty. The top has a large basin or crater, now thickly covered with vegetation, but evidently the former mouth of a volcano and the outer sides are all thickly strewn with masses of stone which have the appearance of having been thrown up in a liquid state and rapidly cooled; they are of all shapes and sizes and just like those which compose nearly the whole of "Rangitoto" and "Koreho." We enjoyed an extensive and very beautiful view which fully repaid the toil of the ascent. One new and very pleasing object we perceived at a great distance beneath us--what seemed to be a yoke of oxen ploughing. We were aware that Mr. Fairburn has a farm in this part of the country, and from the traces of recent fires in this direction we concluded that this must be the place. By following the course which our fire had cleared we returned to our boat with little difficulty, the walking through blackened stems of fern and brush being a trifle compared with our usual scrambling. On our return we met Mr. Fairburn who had just landed from his boat to wait till the tide should have risen sufficiently to enable him to get higher up the river near to which his farm is situated. The weather apparently setting in wet and squally we hastened back to the cutter, which we reached just after dark.

Friday, May 15th. --Cutter got under weigh just after breakfast and we returned to the entrance of the harbour

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of Waitemata, where we remained snugly sheltered during a very heavy gale which lasted with little intermission till Saturday night, the vessel rolling about very unpleasantly, and the frequent heavy rain, sometimes accompanied with thunder and lightening or violent squalls of wind or both, making our position very disagreeable.

Sunday, 17 th May. --The morning being fine we were glad to take advantage of it to proceed on our course; about noon, however, the wind increased to a sharp squall, and from the very intricate nature of the place we were running through, its various islands, rocks, and shoals, we were in considerable danger and were glad to find a sheltered bay on the island of Waihekeh, where we anchored about 3 p.m. Very soon after a boat came alongside with a number of natives and one European, a most lamentable specimen of degraded humanity, for a more reckless, depraved-looking creature, either white or black, could scarce be found anywhere. Three of the natives were in the dress of Europeans, all correctly adjusted even to the stockings and shoes. They wore military caps with gold bands, frock coats, white shirts, fine waistcoats and trousers, and even large Plaid or Blue Boat cloaks. Poor creatures, they evidently thought themselves perfect gentlemen, and looked with contempt on their far more interesting companion, an old chief wrapped in a large blanket covered with a mat of their own curious manufacture. We were told by the European who was with them that all these clothes were purchased by the sale of vast tracts of land and now these poor creatures had nothing at all to dispose of. We found them, as usual, great beggars.

Monday, 18th May. --The gale having abated during the night we determined to take advantage of the fine morning to run across the Frith to Coromandel or "Waihou" Harbour. The distance is not more than 12 or 15 miles, but the wind fell almost entirely and we were all day

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getting across. Just as we neared the chain of islands which extends along the coast, almost hiding the entrance to the Bay, the wind sprang up and continued blowing so hard that we were glad to get safely into the harbour and anchored in a sheltered little basin about half past 4 p.m. We found, lying at anchor there, a large vessel, the Bengal Merchant, which, after having brought out emigrants to Port Nicholson, had encountered very severe weather on this coast and lost some masts and spars, which compelled her to put in here to refit. One of the officers came on board but we did not gain much authentic information from him, he having just dined. I am much disappointed in this place. I had expected to find a considerable settlement but there is not a house to be seen from the water; a few huts are visible but nothing like cultivation or in any way approaching civilisation. The island Waihekeh where we lay this morning seems very beautiful; the heights are clothed with woods, the shores bold and craggy, and also thickly timbered to the waters edge; the outline of the distant hills is also very broken and picturesque.

Tuesday, 19th May. --The morning was cold with frequent squalls of wind and rain; in the afternoon we landed to look for some rocks of very curious formation and had a very pleasant scramble on the sea shore for about three hours.... The rocks we were in search of were not as we expected in columns similar to those of Staffa or at the Giant's Causeway on the coast of Ireland, but were merely large masses of black basalt, somewhat lined and marked in a manner distantly resembling columns but nothing more. The mountainous appearance of the mainland and the numerous rocky islets scattered around formed a romantic picturesque scene.

Friday, May 22. --The last three days we have been slowly dropping down the Frith of Thames in a perfect calm, the tide just carrying us along, and when it turned

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we were compelled to anchor to avoid drifting back with it. After dinner today being off a native village, we went in our boat to visit them, as the vessel lay only about 3 miles from the shore with no chance of being able to move till the tide turned again. On landing we found the spot chosen for the settlement was most picturesque and beautiful at the mouth of a fine, fresh water stream running through a mountain glen. A few native huts were perched on the sides of the hills and the low ground was covered with their maize plantations. It had, however, been destroyed, apparently by a flood; the stream had probably been swollen by heavy rains and had swept down the glen with great violence, washing down whole trees and branches into the cultivated ground below. We wandered about the glen and shore and saw no natives, they being all nearly half a mile off, but the rest of our party went direct through the plantation to the village where they found all the natives assembled at their evening service. They always assemble morning and evening and sing hymns, and generally read some portion of the scriptures which have been translated into their language by the missionaries. We returned about dusk to the cutter.

Saturday, May 23rd. --A fine morning and a fresh breeze invited us to start on our expedition to explore the "Piako," a river which enters the Frith about 4 miles from the mouth of the Thames. We left the cutter about 10 a.m. and sailed across the Frith and a few miles up the river; the banks are very low and the channel narrow and much obstructed by shoals and mud flats, all covered with innumerable seabirds. The navigation being rather difficult we took to our oars and proceeded up the stream. The distant outlines of the landscape are very beautiful, varied with patches of wood and backed with lofty picturesque hills. About 3 p.m. we reached the spot where we were to pitch our tent for the night; it is a plain rather higher than

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the surrounding country but bare of wood and not at all inviting in appearance. There is a native settlement near and we were soon welcomed by a party of them who brought us wood for a trifling present of tobacco, and we passed a very comfortable night.

Sunday, 24th May. --Though we should have greatly preferred making this, as it ought to be, a day of rest, yet as it was absolutely necessary we should reach the place of our destination still 16 miles distant, within a given time, we were obliged to proceed. We started early, the banks of the river becoming still more swampy and in most places thickly bordered with the flax, a beautiful plant greatly resembling the gigantic Lily of New South Wales in appearance, but from the flower stalks still remaining, though the flowers have disappeared, I judge the flowers must be much smaller and different from them. The river, though still deep and flowing with a rapid stream is become much narrower and is frequently obstructed by regular weirs placed across it by the natives for the purpose of catching fish; these we were sometimes obliged to force our way through. Innumerable ducks covered the stream and arose in flocks from the marshy banks and lagoons on each side of the river. We at length approached some fine looking country, the banks of the stream were higher, and it flowed through several woods of magnificent trees principally Kaikatea. It was nearly dark before we reached the place we intended to camp, a beautiful spot, quite surrounded by wood excepting where it reaches the river's bank; on the opposite side of the stream there are fine mountains and lofty woods in the background, and beautiful undulating fern-clad hills extending from them to the river. There is here the beginning of a village, the country all around has been purchased by Europeans and preparations are making for building houses and cultivating the ground with the help of the natives, who, for payment, will put up

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very neat buildings, after their own fashion, of "Rapoo." There is a fine old chief to whom the country formerly belonged, who has a residence here, and there is also a small building used for a sort of church, where every morning and evening a few of his people assemble, and he reads from the Testament to them and they all sing a hymn. The custom is pleasing and interesting, and though I doubt there being much if any devotion in it, yet it is something to have gained even an empty show of the feeling; the reality may come hereafter.

Monday, 25th May. --The weather unfortunately now seems to be on the change. Showers of rain were frequent during the night and early morning. However after breakfast we crossed the river and, under the guidance of the old chief, gained the summit of a lofty hill called Maokoro, with very little difficulty. It is, like so many others we have seen, a fortification of great strength, the summit cut into three distinct ridges, evidently a work of immense labour. Returning thence we got into a large boat and, accompanied by Webster and three other individuals, all proprietors of land in this neighbourhood, we proceeded to examine still farther the country on the banks of the river. The stream passes through a rich and beautiful tract of country, varied by splendid woods and undulating plains; it is very narrow and much obstructed by the falling of huge trees into and across the stream, and after a distance of 6 or 7 miles we found it so dangerous and difficult that we resolved to return, having ascertained, by a long walk across the country, the object we desired. We reached the tent again by about 5 o'clock, we had encountered some very heavy showers and the weather still continuing doubtful, we thought it best to make up our minds to return to the Cutter the following day.

Tuesday, 26th. --Accordingly we started early in a drizzling rain, and for some hours pulled rapidly down the

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stream, frequent squalls of wind and heavy showers rendering our voyage very cold and disagreeable. About noon, however, we were favoured by a little improvement in the weather, and on reaching our former encampment, we stopped for about 20 minutes to rest the oars a little; afterwards we only had showers at intervals till reaching the mouth of the river, we attempted to cross the Frith. This was the worst part of our voyage, for the meeting of wind and tide caused such a heavy rolling sea that I feared our little boat, so heavily loaded, would be swamped every instant. We encountered two sharp squalls also before we reached the cutter, and I was most thankful when we reached her in safety. She was anchored in a secure little bay in the mouth of the Thames.

Wednesday, May 27th. --After breakfast we again set forth to examine the Thames river. The entrance is wide but as usual very shoal, mud flats extending often from either bank for some miles up. The country is flat for some distance inland and there are frequent tracts of fine forest land, the woods presenting a far more beautiful variety of tints than I have observed elsewhere; the trees are all, I believe, deciduous and there is every imaginable variety of foliage and colouring and shape and size. We proceeded about 16 miles to a station belonging to a Dr. Martyn. This is a large flat almost surrounded by the river and a creek and is the most dismal looking place imaginable; there is scarcely a tree upon it, and excepting a small space where the fern and scrub have been burnt off and a small house or rather hovel erected, it is all covered with flax or reeds. The hills rise at the back beyond the creek and are partially wooded, but the spot where the people are living, surrounded by the huts of the natives with all their accompanying discomforts of dirt, dogs, pigs and poultry, is the most miserable I have seen here. We remained about two hours and then returned down the

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river and reached the cutter after dark, very cold, and with a strong wind and tide against us.

Thursday, 28th May. --The weather has now set in so wet and stormy that we cannot venture out of our anchorage, so we resolved to visit a celebrated spot on the banks of the river, not far from our anchorage. We landed on the left bank of the river near a settlement of natives who came out to meet us with some curiosity, but when we bent our steps towards the "Pah," the place we wished to visit, they did not at first seem inclined to accompany us, or even to like our going. However we had Webster with us, a man they all know, and who has great influence over them from his perfect knowledge of their language and his long residence among them and therefore we did not pay much attention to their remonstrances and in a few minutes three of them came running after us and with great alacrity showed us the best paths, and when a stream of water or a muddy creek intervened, most readily assisted in cutting down branches to lay across, and on one occasion even wished to carry me over; this, however, I declined. There are some among them of so very savage and terrific aspect that I cannot overcome my dread of some future outbreak, nor divest myself of the idea of some vindictive feelings latent in their minds which they only wait a favourable moment to display towards us. "Totara" Pah 4 was once the most important in this part of the country, and contained a very large number of people. They were treacherously attacked about 15 years ago by a tribe from the Bay of Islands under the chief "Hongi," who, after living with them as on a friendly visit for about a month left as if to return to his own country, and falling on them in the night massacred men, women and children to the number of 300. Their bones lie scattered around in every

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direction, some in the enclosure, others down the sides of the hill, as if murdered in the attempt to escape; or hidden in some cleft or wooded recess, as if the poor wounded wretch had dragged himself there to die in peace. The greater number of bones are found scattered round the ovens where the horrid banquet was prepared and devoured. These are hollow circles of stones and the method of preparing food is by making fires in these holes till the stones are thoroughly heated, then they sweep out the ashes with boughs and wrapping the flesh or fish in leaves they lay it on the stones, cover branches and leaves over it, pouring over the whole a sufficient quantity of water, and keeping in the steam by piling earth and branches over it. This is said to be a most excellent mode of cooking, even for a European taste, and pork, dressed thus, is considered delicious; but I shall never overcome my repugnance to it unless I can ever forget that human flesh is the great delicacy most generally cooked in this way by the New Zealanders and the sickening sight of the innumerable ovens with the ghastly remains of the feast of "Totara."

Friday, 29th May. --Though it still blew very hard we were so unwilling to lose time, that at the slightest prospect of moderating we weighed anchor to run to Coromandel Harbour. There was a very heavy sea on and the poor little cutter was soon tossing about in the Frith, and I obliged to betake myself to my berth wretchedly sick as usual The wind moderated and the sea went down rapidly after sunset, so we enjoyed a quiet night and at daylight next morning we were off the entrance to Coromandel.

Saturday, 30th. --Being dead calm after breakfast we got into our boat accompanied by Webster, and left the cutter to work in with the tide. We landed at Webster's house and it is difficult to imagine a more extraordinary assemblage of characters than his little hut contained that day. We sat down to dinner as at a table d'hote, no

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individual acquiring any acquaintanceship with his neighbour by this association. 5 Thus there were adventurers of all kinds, from the honourable (quasi) Dudley Sinclair, member of the Port Nicholson Assembly, to the half piratical master of several vessels strongly suspected of being concerned in the slave trade. I felt, I must say, I was in a very strange position, but I found amusement and interest in observing the motley throng and we, of course, commanded every attention as being attached to the Government. There were a few natives about; one of them a very fine looking old man, was pointed out to me as having seen our great navigator Captain Cook. He described the wonder of his countrymen on the approach of Captain Cook's boat. They supposed that the rowers must have eyes in the back of their heads as they sat with their faces towards the stern of the boat; in paddling their own canoes, the natives all face the head or bows of the canoes and steer by striking the water on either side at irregular intervals. This old fellow is very elaborately tattooed, which conceals the wrinkles of his face, and being very tall and his figure still erect he does not appear so aged as on closer examination is evident. The women, it is said, are fond of being tattooed for the purpose of hiding the encroachments of time on their beauty. They say when dissuaded by the missionaries from the practice, "Oh, let us have a few marks round our lips at least, else we shall be so ugly when we grow old." They are certainly ugly enough when old even with all these assistances to nature. The young women are some of them rather good looking and some of the half castes are like very lovely gypsies, perfectly beautiful. The cutter came to anchor just inside the heads, about 4 p.m., and we returned on board.

Sunday, 31st May. ---We resolved to make this a day

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of rest after our week's buffeting about, so after breakfast took our books, landed from our boat on the northern headland of the harbour and walked over the hills till we reached a pretty sunny spot from which we could command a very beautiful view. Here we sat down, making a couch of the fern and performing our devotions in this tabernacle not made with hands as humbly and sincerely as if they had risen from the most costly temple. We afterwards extended our walk half round the romantic little harbour which resembled more a mountain lake than an inlet from the sea, especially on so calm and beautiful a day; the very forms of the mountains were shadowed in the calm still waters like reflections in a mirror. We returned on board the cutter to dinner and afterwards made a tour quite round the harbour in our boat. At the upper end is a very large Pah or stockaded village on the bank of a small creek which at low water can only be entered by canoes. There was not water enough for our boat to enter the creek, but we pulled in close to the Pah and Felton landed and was immediately hurried off by two or three natives to be presented to the chiefs, while I, remaining in the boat, was an object of great curiosity to the rest of the group; there might be 80 or 100 clustered round, talking and observing everything. They had just finished their evening prayers, for this practice is universal. At sunset a bell rings (or something that answers the same purpose is used, an old iron pot, or a barrel of a gun cut in three pieces and strung together); this summons them to assemble and the whole hive swarms round one of the chiefs who can read, and after singing a hymn, generally to the tune of "God save the King," they read two or three chapters from the Testament and then disperse. After about 5 minutes my husband returned accompanied by the Chief who most politely came into the boat to shake hands with me, and then we pushed off again and reached the cutter after dark.

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Monday, June 1st. --This morning the weather was thick and cold drizzling rain fell at intervals, but the wind being tolerably fair for us we left the harbour about noon and stood across the Frith to call at Mr. Fairburn's, but in an hour or two such a violent squall of wind and rain came on that we were obliged to run into a little bay on the island of Waihekeh, and though in a tolerably sheltered anchorage there was such a heavy swell that we passed but a very indifferent night.

June 2nd, Tuesday. --It rained heavily all night, but partially clearing this morning we pursued our course to Mr. Fairburn's. The wind was so light and variable that we made but slow progress and about 3 p.m. when a nice breeze had just sprung up and we were sailing along quite merrily, we just ran upon a shoal or mud flat. Our worthy captain soon got her off again but was so frightened that he would not venture again to approach this shore, so we made up our minds to leave the cutter to anchor in Putiki, a pretty little bay on the south side of Waihekeh, and cross in our boat to Mr. Fairburn's. As we neared the bay we saw two vessels there taking shelter like ourselves, one, the Lady Leith, we spoke as we passed and found she was commanded by the brother of an old friend in the Colony who had accepted the charge for the sake of seeing the country. We were very glad to find a quiet snug harbour for as evening drew in it came on to blow and rain again tremendously.

Wednesday, June 3rd. --A beautiful morning. Mr. Richards came on board to breakfast with us, and directly after he got his ship under weigh and sailed out of the Bay, bound for Port Nicholson. We also loaded our boat with tents and provisions for a few days and started across the Frith for Maraetai. It was a very fine calm day and excessively hot in the sun; the poor men had rather a heavy pull. We reached Mr. Fairburn's about noon, and before

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dark had our tents pitched in a very pretty spot, a secluded little valley with a stream of beautiful water running over a ledge of rocks forming a fine cascade opposite the door of our tent. The Fairburns all treated us with the greatest attention and hospitality, we almost lived entirely at their house during our stay.

Thursday, June 4th. --The weather is cold and stormy, but we have a good fire in front of our tent, and it is in such a sheltered little nook that we do not find it so cold as I expected. This afternoon I went with Miss Fairburn to attend her native school. There were only about a dozen children and young women, most of them employed as domestic servants by Mrs. Fairburn, but I am told that the assemblage is in general much larger, sometimes 70 or 80. Their studies are reading the scriptures in their own language, also the catechism and hymns; and some half dozen write upon slates, letters words or sentences. The most amusing part of the business is the repetition of the English alphabet by the whole corps dramatique to the tune of God Save the King in chorus. This is the grand finale. 6

Friday, June 5th, --The weather unfortunately is so wet and squally that we cannot see much of the surrounding country. There are some very richly wooded hills rising at the back of Mr. Fairburn's, but immediately round his house it is all as cold, bleak and dreary as possible; the soil seems to be of the poorest description. They seem to

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have made some efforts towards bringing it into a state of cultivation but with very little apparent success. Their garden has a few shrubs and trees, but all with such evident traces of the devastating effects of the severe gale in February last, which seems to be irrecoverable. Indeed, the house is placed in the highest and most exposed situation possible, and judging by the uprooted trees around it, I wonder it was not itself blown down to the beach from the violence of the gale.

Saturday, June 6th. --This morning being fine with a promise of a fair wind for the northward, we after breakfast took leave of our hospitable entertainers and as quickly as possible got all our things into the boat and stood across to Putiki, but we had scarcely left the shore when it began to blow tremendously, and with such a heavy swell that our little deeply loaded boat was in danger of being swamped every moment. I was very frightened, very wet and very cold for the spray dashed over us at almost every plunge, but with two reefs in the sail and by the protection of Providence we reached the cutter in safety. After dinner weighed anchor and stood out, running northward with a fine breeze.

Sunday, June 7th. --Fine morning and we enjoyed sailing along the coast very much. After dinner the wind freshened and the sea rose considerably, so that when we found ourselves off the headlands of the little harbour, "Tutukaka," which we intended visiting, our captain was unwilling to approach the coast and said it was too late to attempt getting in before dark, but would lay off and on till morning. In the night it blew very hard and we were compelled to run under the lee of the rocky islands called the Poor Knights, and there lay to.

Monday, 8th June. --The weather still boisterous and the sea running high, the wind directly against us. We were beating about all day unable to make the least approach

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to our wished for haven. Towards the afternoon the weather looked so threatening that, dreading another night's beating about, we resolved to run down the Wangari harbour. Long before we reached it the wind moderated, and the cutter being such a heavy sailer made such slow progress, that we only just got inside the heads when it fell a dead calm, and there we lay just in the tide-way rolling about miserably sick till morning when we got into our own boat and pulled on shore just to breathe a little fresh air and recruit our spirits and strength. Meanwhile the cutter on Tuesday, June 9th, worked in with the morning's tide and anchored about noon in a snug little cove just under the loftiest of the huge peaks or pinnacles which form the North headland of the Bay....

Wednesday, 10th June. --Fine morning so weighed and stood out to reach "Tutukaka" in good time, but alas about 9 a.m., it fell calm in a moment and the sky became suddenly overcast while the sea as suddenly rose, and there we were, perfectly powerless, just outside the frowning heads of Wangari, could neither proceed to the Northward, nor yet regain the friendly port we had left, while the sky appeared every moment more threatening. The sun glared red through the clouds like an angry moon through a London fog, and the cutter rolled heavily through the water. At last the gale came down upon us, the rain poured in torrents, and we drove before the wind to the northward keeping as far to seaward as we could. I was, of course, wretchedly ill, and could hardly keep myself in bed from the rolling and pitching of the vessel. Towards morning we were, as we supposed, nearing the Bay of Islands, so lay to till daylight should enable us to make our course.

Thursday, June 11th. --At daylight found ourselves off the heads, and the weather moderating a little we managed to get inside the heads by about 10 a. m. We were all day beating up, however, and did not anchor off "Russell"

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till nearly 4 p.m. It rained almost all day but I was most thankful for having finished our voyage in safety. Felton went on shore immediately and the Governor was extremely glad to see him and offered to have a bed made up for us if we would land at once; but we declined and were glad to have a quiet night's rest to recruit.

Friday, June 12th. --Most thankful for our safe return. We landed at Paihia and took up our abode in a house belonging to the missionaries and partly occupied by Dr. Johnson.

1   Probably Lawson Creek; see sketch-map facing page 158.
2   Point Chevalier beach (?).
3   This was almost certainly the party of J. Logan Campbell and his friends, Webster ("Waipeha"), the "Yankee King of Waiou" and W. Brown, Campbell's partner. They had come over from Coromandel, or Waiau, to buy up land at the Waitemata in anticipation of the Government's operations. See J. L. Campbell's delightful narrative, "Poenamo" (1881).
4   For an account of the capture of Totara Pa, 1821, see S. P. Smith, "Maori Wars of the 19th Century," pp. 190-202.
5   For Webster's famous "table d'hote" at six dollars a week, see J. L. Campbell, "Poenamo."
6   In a pleasant, chatty letter to her sister Margaret, dated Paihia, July 18, 1840, Mrs. Mathew wrote: --"All the Gospels and many of the Epistles have been translated and also a few detached portions of the Old Testament, a number of hymns, the Liturgy, and catechism of our church. This was done because it was found the natives would not learn English. Now they are beginning to manifest a willingness to do so, and in the schools they are repeating the alphabet and a few little words as well. At one, I heard them saying, or rather singing the multiplication table very well--that is for parrots; I do not think they knew what it meant."

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