Map of the Auckland District, 1852
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THE CAPITAL OF NEW ZEALAND,
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VIEW OF AUCKLAND
P.J. Hogan del. Colonial Hospital, Scotch Church, St. Paul's Church, Barracks, Wesleyan Chapel, R.C. Church, Ford & West imp.
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But a very few years have elapsed since New Zealand became a dependency of the Crown; yet, having been the field on which several schemes of colonization have been tried, it is more generally known than many of our older and more important colonies. Even the names of some of its numerous settlements are by no means unfamiliar to the public ear. "Wellington" and "Nelson" were both founded under powerful patronage. "Taranaki" was heard of in the far west; "Otago" beyond the Tweed; and "Canterbury," was as familiar as a household word, both in London and the Provinces. "Auckland," comparatively unknown, has, meanwhile, been growing in the shade. It being, however, the most important settlement in the country, and now also, by means of the Panama route, about to become the nearest of our Australasian posses-
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sions; a gold-field, moreover, having been recently discovered in its neighbourhood, the public may desire to learn some particulars of its history; and these pages are designed to afford the needful information.
A description of Auckland may not improperly be prefaced by some mention of its founder; and the following brief review of his career, if but a trifling, is at least a truthful, tribute to the memory of a meritorious, but ill-requited public officer.
In attempting to describe the position of AUCKLAND, the writer has cited various competent and independent authorities; yet nothing but a map of the district can convey to the distant reader an adequate conception of its fitness for the site of an extensive settlement.
The most diligent reader of colonial intelligence will learn with surprise, that nearly one-third of the European population in New Zealand are settled within sight of Auckland. The progress made by the district in agricultural pursuits; the value and variety of its exports; the amount of its shipping, and of the trade and commerce of its port, will also be surprising to many.
The climate of New Zealand, as it has been described, frequently disappoints at first, and for a time, the new arrival. An attempt has here been
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made to describe it as it will be found to be; and, thanks to the valuable contributions of an accurate observer, the chapter devoted to the subject of the Climate will be found to contain much interesting information with reference to its sanative character.
In the fifth chapter it is believed that the inhabitants of Auckland will recognise a correct picture of its "Social and Domestic" phase.
Of the recent gold discovery in its immediate neighbourhood, it has been the object of the writer to place on record a faithful narrative.
In matters of taste, opinions will always differ; and although the chapter on "Bush-travelling in New Zealand" may appear to some to be too highly coloured, yet if "he best can paint them who has felt them most," the following picture of its pleasures should be faithful to the life.
"Night and Morning" does but feeble justice to a noble theme. In able hands the "Past and Present" of New Zealand, would make one of the most interesting pages in the annals of our history. But the concluding chapter will at least suffice to show that a curious problem in the history of the human race is now being solved in the islands of New Zealand.
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THE CAPITAL OF NEW ZEALAND,
INCLUDING SOME ACCOUNT OF
THE GOLD DISCOVERY IN NEW ZEALAND.
* * * "A good land, a land of brooks of water, of fountains and depths that spring out of valleys and hills; a land of wheat and barley, and vines, and fig trees, and pomegranates; a land of oil-olive, and honey; a land wherein thou shalt eat bread without scarceness, thou shalt not lack anything in it; a land whose stones are iron, and out of whose hills thou mayest dig brass."
"Their land is also full of silver and gold, neither is there any end of their treasures."
With a Map of the Auckland District,
FROM RECENT SURVEYS.
SMITH, ELDER & CO., 65, CORNHILL.
AUCKLAND: i J. WILLIAMSON.
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Printed by STEWART and MURRAY,
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THE FIRST GOVERNOR OF NEW ZEALAND.
A glance at Captain Hobson's administration of the affairs of New Zealand...... Page 1
CHAPTER II. POSITION, &C. OF AUCKLAND.
Captain Hobson's description of the position of Auckland, and his reasons for selecting it as the site for the capital of New Zealand--Nature of the country, and character of the soil--The position of its two harbours--The extent of its water communication with the interior of the country--Governor Grey's description of the available character of the land in the neighbourhood--Resemblance to the site of Corinth--Reasons for which it was determined by the British Government that Auckland should be the seat of the Government of the colony...... Page 11
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CHAPTER III. AUCKLAND AND ITS NEIGHBOURHOOD.
The city of Auckland--The harbour--The suburbs--Agriculture--Exports--Shipping--Commerce--The isthmus--State and progress of the district .... Page 27
CHAPTER IV. THE CLIMATE.
The climate--Its salubrity--Superiority over Continental climates--Comparison with the climate and weather of England--Seasons for fruits and flowers--Temperature, &c, of the various months ..... Page 44
CHAPTER V. AUCKLAND--SOCIAL AND DOMESTIC.
Auckland society--Amusements--New arrivals--Cost of living--Value of native labour--Arrival of an "English mail"--Delay in the transmission of mails--The advantages to Auckland of the Panama steam line--Arrival of a "box from England"-- Business and occupations of the people--Summary. Page 64
CHAPTER VI. THE GOLD DISCOVERY.
Emigration from Auckland to the neighbouring gold fields--False reports of gold being found in New Zealand--Offer of reward
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of. £500 for the discovery of gold in the Auckland district--Discovery of gold at Coromandel Harbour within forty miles of Auckland--Geological character of the Coromandel district-- Uneasiness of the natives--Difficult position of the Government, the gold being found on native lands--Progress of the discovery--Government proclamation--Measures contemplated by the Executive--"Te Taniwha"--Arrangements made by the Lieutenant-Governor with the natives at the meeting held at Coromandel-- Government regulations--Quantity of gold found--Sale of gold by auction--Hopes and fears--Description of the specimens, &c--Prospects--Conclusion... Page 85
CHAPTER VII. BUSH TRAVELLING IN NEW ZEALAND.
Convenient situation of Auckland as a starting point--Water communication in every direction--New Zealand scenery--River travelling--Overland journey to Wellington and back again-- The Waikato and the Waipa--The descent of the Wanganui--The Horikiwi Valley, and road into Wellington--Coast route homewards--Scenery--Equipment and practical directions for travelling in the bush--Sights by the way--Advantages, &c, of travelling...... Page 115
CHAPTER VIII. "NIGHT AND MORNING." THE "PAST AND PRESENT" OF NEW ZEALAND.
The early colonization of New Zealand--Interesting nature of the undertaking--Present condition of the natives--Their progress--Their present state compared with that of 1836--Speech of a native at a missionary meeting--Representative institutions --Future prospects..... Page 136
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Proclamation--Discovery of gold--Agreement with natives--Provisional regulations .... Page 155